離胺酸與生肉餐

Answers: Lysine and Raw Meat Diets

離胺酸是什麼?我的朋友會給她的貓離胺酸來治皰疹,是不是所有貓都需要在食物裡添加這個營養補充物?
What is lysine? I have a friend who gives it to her cat as a treatment for herpes, but should it be supplemented in every cat's diet?
 
離胺酸是貓的必需胺基酸.這表示貓的身體不能自行合成製造這個胺基酸,這必須由他們的食物中攝取.離胺酸在所有的肉中都有,其中魚肉比起其他肉類中的含量還高.在人類醫學中,離胺酸是用來抑制皰疹病毒發作,有很多研究支持這個結果.離胺酸會跟精氨酸競爭,藉這個機制來抑制皰疹病毒.研究也指出精氨酸對於病毒的訊號傳遞與複製是必需的.離胺酸可以代替精氨酸的位置,藉此干擾這個過程.很多研究也指出離胺酸對於貓科動物的皰疹病毒也很有效,而皰疹病毒常會造成貓咪的上呼吸道與眼睛問題.
Lysine is an essential amino acid for cats. This means that the cat's body cannot synthesize or make this amino acid so it must be consumed in the diet. Lysine is present in all meats, but fish contain higher amounts than other types of meat. For many years in human medicine lysine has been used to help suppress herpes flare ups and several studies exist to support this.¹ It is suspected that the mechanism by which lysine is able to suppress herpesvirus is by competing with arginine. Studies have indicated that arginine is necessary to signal and initiate replication of certain viruses including all herpesviruses. It is thought that lysine displaces arginine and thus interferes with this process. Several studies indicate that lysine may be effective at suppressing feline herpesvirus, a common cause of upper respiratory and eye problems in cats.²
 
因為精氨酸也是貓的必需胺基酸,所以太多的離胺酸可能會造成精氨酸不足.精氨酸不足也會讓貓咪生病.但是,2004年有一份研究指出,在36隻貓咪的飲食中添加到86g/KG的離胺酸並不會造成任何負面的影響.這相當於平均體重4.5公斤的貓咪,每天攝取387克的離胺酸.一般建議的治療劑量為每天兩次,每次500毫克,所以不需要擔心你給貓咪的離胺酸會造成精氨酸不足.那份研究中的實驗進行了14天,且依照實驗與實際上所使用的劑量上的巨大差異,長期的使用離胺酸不太可能會有副作用.
 
Since arginine is also an essential amino acid for the cat, there has been some concern that too much lysine may result in an arginine deficiency. Arginine deficiency can make cats very sick. See "What is Arginine and Is It Essential?" for more information on that. However, a 2004 study of 36 cats concluded that lysine supplementation of up to 86 g/kg showed no adverse effects.³This would equate to the average 4.5 kg, or 10 pound, cat receiving 387 g or 387,000 mg per day. Given that the recommended treatment dose is 500 mg twice daily, there seems to be no cause for concern regarding arginine deficiency in cats appropriately supplemented with lysine. While the study covered a 14 day period it can be assumed that due to the enormous difference between the threshold of lysine resulting in any adverse effect and the typical dose, long term usage is extremely unlikely to result in any unwanted effects.
 
依據NRC的標準,成貓每天離胺酸的建議攝取量是0.68克/每1000kcal的代謝能量.大部分貓的每天代謝能量介於300-350kcal,大部分貓的最低需求量約為0.20-0.25克(200-250毫克).NRC並沒有列出每天的最大攝取量.大部分的肉中(包含禽類,牛及魚)都含有至少230毫克/100克肉的離胺酸.大部分的貓每天至少會吃113克的肉,從肉中攝取的離胺酸對於貓咪的每日需求是足夠的.
According to the National Research Council the minimum daily requirement of lysine for an adult cat is 0.68 g per 1,000 kcal of metabolizable energy. Since most cats require in the range of 300-350kilocalories per day, the minimum requirement for most cats should be about 0.20-0.25 g, which is 200 to 250 mg and equivalent to 0.0088 ounce. The NRC does not list a maximum daily amount. Most meat sources including poultry, beef, and fish have at least 230 mg of lysine per 100 grams/3.5 ounces of meat. Since most cats will consume at least 4 ounces of meat per day, there is more than enough lysine in a meat-based diet to meet a cat's daily need.
Read more at http://feline-nutrition.org/answers/answers-lysine-and-raw-meat-diets 
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