The ownership and copyright of this article belongs to the original writer and this is just a translated version, only for sharing.
Feeding Your Cat: Know the Basics of Feline Nutrition
作者:Lisa A. Pierson, DVM
Common Feline Health Problems and Their Ties to Diet
There is a very strong and extremely logical connection between the way that we are currently feeding our obligate carnivores and many of the life-threatening diseases that afflict them.
Diabetes is a very serious – and difficult to manage – disease that is not uncommon in cats. We do not know all of the causes of this complex disease but what we do know is that many diabetic cats cease needing insulin or have their insulin needs significantly decrease once their dietary carbohydrate level is decreased to a more species-inappropriate level than that found in many commercial foods.
Given this fact, and given what we know about how the cat processes carbohydrates, it is not a stretch to say that high carbohydrate diets could very well be a significant factor in causing diabetes in some cats.
除了知道碳水化合物是如何影響血糖濃度, 乾乾是一種高度濃縮的熱量, 非常可口,也常用任食的方式餵食,這會造成肥胖.
In addition to the issue of carbohydrates and how they affect the blood sugar level of some cats, dry food is very calorie dense, is very palatable, and is usually free-fed which often leads to obesity.
Fat cells produce a substance that makes the other cells in the body resistant to insulin. This promotes the diabetic state.
It is very important to understand the impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on the insulin needs of a diabetic cat.
If you have decided to start feeding your diabetic cat a low carbohydrate diet, please review the Feline Diabetes page at catinfo.org before you change the diet. Be sure to review the STOP sign section on that webpage.
請注意,許多獸醫低估了低碳水化合物對於胰島素需求的影響. 如果胰島素沒有被準確的降低,過高濃度的胰島素會致命. 我強烈建議所有照顧糖糖貓的貓奴,在家觀測血糖濃度,且使用標準的血糖檢測儀,在轉換飲食時,更要仔細的觀測.
Please be aware that many veterinarians underestimate the favorable impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on the insulin needs of the patient and they do not lower the insulin dose enough. If the insulin is not lowered accordingly, an overdose of insulin will occur which can be life-threatening. I strongly suggest that all caretakers of diabetic cats home-test to monitor blood glucose levels using a standard glucometer as a matter of routine, but careful monitoring is especially important when implementing a diet change.
許多獸醫會建議食用一些昂貴的食品,像是普瑞納(糖尿病控制)及希爾思的m/d,但你可以有更好的方式(同時拯救荷包)-餵食其他更營養且低碳水化合物的罐罐(如, Merrick, Wellness, Nature's Variety, EVO, etc). 你應該找那些熱量源自碳水化合物比例低於10%的食品.
Many veterinarians prescribe expensive diets such as Purina DM (Diabetes Management) and Science Diet m/d but you can do much better for your cat (and your pocketbook) by feeding other more nutritious – and lower carbohydrate - canned foods such as Merrick, Wellness, Nature's Variety, EVO, etc. You should aim for a diet that derives less than 10% of its calories from carbohydrates.
If the above mentioned diets are out of your price range or your cat does not like them, then pick another diet from Binky’s chart that is below 10% of calories from carbohydrates.
腎臟疾病Kidney Disease (CKD - formerly called "CRF"):
Chronic kidney disease is probably the leading cause of mortality in the cat.
慢性的脫水會加劇貓咪的腎臟疾病. 而且記得,由其是CKD的貓咪食用乾乾,會造成慢性脫水.腎貓處方食品,如希爾思的 k/d(常常被獸醫指定使用),含有非常少的水分(低於10%,罐罐有78%),會使貓咪更無法有最好的水分平衡.
It is troubling to think about the role that chronic dehydration may play in causeing and exacerbating feline kidney disease. And remember, cats are chronically dehydrated - especially CKD cats - when they are on a diet of predominantly dry food. The prescription dry 'renal diets' such as Hill’s Prescription k/d - which is commonly prescribed by veterinarians - contain only a small amount of moisture (~10% versus 78% for canned food) leaving your cat in a less than optimal state of water balance.
I must say that I find it truly amazing when I hear about the very large numbers of cats receiving subcutaneous fluids while being maintained on a diet of dry food. This is an extremely illogical and unhealthy practice and every attempt should be made to get these cats on a diet that contains an appropriate moisture content.
請同時注意,下面所列出的希爾斯k/d處方前四主要原料,記得你的貓咪是食肉動物. 這種飲食絕不會在我家貓咪的飲食裡出現. 前三主要原料沒有動物性蛋白-低品質且不適合. 真的有其他更好的食物可以給家裡的腎貓.
Please also note the following list of the first four ingredients of Hill’s Prescription dry k/d while bearing in mind that your cat is a carnivore. This is a diet that would never find its way into a food bowl owned by any cat in my care. The first three ingredients contain no animal-based proteins making it an extremely low quality, inappropriate diet for any cat. There really are much healthier diets available for cats with kidney disease than dry k/d.
釀酒用米Brewers rice, 玉米麵筋粉corn gluten meal,豬油 pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), 雞肉副產品粉chicken byproduct meal
The purpose of this prescription diet is to restrict protein which, unfortunately, it certainly does. However, please understand that there are no studies showing that restricting protein to this level will prevent further deterioration of kidney function.
k/d限制蛋白質的程度讓有些貓咪沒辦法攝取足夠的蛋白質源熱量(用以產生肌肉),最後造成體重減輕及肌肉減少. 這樣減少貓咪的肌肉會造成肌酐的增加(其是經由腎臟代謝). 肌酐的增加及肌肉減少會導致一個常見的結果-慢性腎臟疾病惡化.
k/d restricts protein to the point that some cats - those that are not consuming enough of the diet to provide for their protein calorie needs - will catabolize (use for fuel) their own muscle mass which results in muscle wasting and weight loss. This internal breakdown of the cat’s own muscle mass will cause an increase in creatinine which needs to be cleared by the kidneys. The rise in creatinine, and muscle wasting, can lead to an often-erroneous conclusion that the patient’s CKD is worsening.
當然,這樣的腎臟退化也會發生在任何沒有攝取足夠蛋白質的貓咪身上. 像k/d這樣的食品,不但蛋白質含量極低,且蛋白質的形式對食肉動物來說是不完整的. 這個食品多由植物性蛋白質構成,而非由肉而來.
Of course, the same deterioration can occur in any cat that is not consuming enough protein, but the level of protein in this diet is not only at an extremely low level, it is in an incomplete form for a carnivore. Note that it is made up mainly of plant proteins – not meat proteins.
膀胱發炎, 膀胱/腎臟結石/結晶,泌尿道阻塞Cystitis (bladder inflammation), Bladder/Kidney Stones/Crystals, Urethral Blockage:
Please see the Feline Urinary Tract Health webpage at catinfo.org for more detailed information on urinary tract issues, including the story and pictures of “Opie”.
The first paragraph on that webpage reads: 如果我能讓讀者只學到一個字,我希望那是”水”. 如果你的貓咪食用一個適當的飽水100%罐罐-沒有乾乾,你有非常高的機會永遠不用閱讀這個網頁If I could have the reader take away just one word from this discussion, it would be "water". If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned food - and no dry food - you stand a very good chance of never needing to read this webpage.
注意我所說的是”水”,而非”結晶”, ”尿液酸鹼值”或”處方食品”(低品質且常被用來控制尿液酸鹼值). 這是因為如果人類能夠餵貓咪適當的高含水,以肉為主的飲食,尿液結晶及酸鹼值幾乎不會是個問題.
Note that I said “water”, not “crystals”, or “urine pH”, or “prescription diets” which are low quality diets used to manipulate urine pH. This is because if humans would just feed cats a properly hydrated, meat-based diet to begin with, urinary crystals and pH would, in almost all cases, become non-issues.
Please keep in mind that a cat has a very low thirst drive and is designed to get water with their food.
It has been shown that a cat on canned food consumes double the amount of water when compared to a cat eating dry food when all sources of water (food and water bowl) are considered. People who feed dry food to their cats often say “but my cat drinks a lot of water” but, in reality, their cat consumes roughly half the amount of water that a cat on canned food consumes.
任何生物的泌尿道系統都需要水的流通,以保持最好的健康. 對貓咪來說,這表示他們應該吃罐罐,而非乾乾. 把那些罐罐想成是每天可以沖洗貓咪的膀胱好幾次.
The urinary tract system of any living creature needs water flowing through it to maintain optimal health. For the cat, this means they should be eating canned food, not dry food. Think of canned food as flushing out your cat’s bladder several times each day.
除了餵食水分嚴重不足的食品及太過於重視酸鹼值與尿液結晶,另一個人類所犯下的嚴重錯誤是濫用抗生素. 許多獸醫會在沒有考慮感染並不是一個常見的尿道疾病成因下,讓貓咪使用抗生素. 這樣的濫用不只讓貓咪的身體變差也會導致細菌的抗藥性.
In addition to feeding a water-depleted diet and focusing too heavily on pH and urine crystals, another very serious mistake that Man makes with regard to urinary tract disease in the cat is the rampant misuse/abuse of antibiotics. Antibiotics are prescribed on a daily basis in many veterinary practices without considering the fact that infections are not a common cause of urinary tract disease in cats. This frequent abuse of antibiotics not only wreaks havoc on the cat’s body, but also promotes bacterial resistance to the antibiotics.
最常見的濫用抗生素案例是膀胱炎. 膀胱炎就是膀胱壁發炎(有或無感染). 我們並不完全知道所有造成這個疼痛疾病的原因,但我們知道這個疾病和壓力及食物中的水含量有強烈關係.
The most common cases that receive needless antibiotics involve patients with cystitis. Cystitis refers to inflammation (with or without infection) of the bladder wall. We do not fully understand all of the causes of this painful disease but we do know that it is strongly linked to stress and the water content of the diet.
貓咪沒有被感染,卻有膀胱炎是非常常見的. 這稱為”無菌性膀胱炎”. 事實上,大部分的膀胱炎是無菌性的. 換句話說,他們並不是感染造成的,不應該使用抗生素治療.你必須了解這個非常重要的觀念,以停止濫用抗生素治療貓咪的泌尿道疾病.
Again, it is very common for a cat to have cystitis without an infection. This is known as “sterile cystitis”. In fact, most cases of cystitis are sterile. In other words, they are not the result of an infection and should not be placed on antibiotics. This is a very important concept to understand if we are ever going to stop abusing antibiotics for feline urinary tract issues.
很多人(包含獸醫)誤用UTI(泌尿道感染)標示無菌性膀胱炎,但是在大多數的案例中,”I”應該是”發炎”,而非”感染”. 有無菌性膀胱炎的貓咪常常被給予不必要的抗生素,實際上他們需要的是治療疼痛的方法,下面會討論到. 記得,血尿並不一定代表有感染.血常常是發炎的表現,不一定是感染.
Many people – including veterinarians - erroneously use the term “UTI” (urinary tract infection) to label what is usually sterile cystitis but, in most cases, the “I” should stand for “inflammation”, not “infection”. Cats with sterile cystitis are often given needless antibiotics when, in fact, they are crying out for pain medication, as discussed below. Keep in mind that blood in the urine does not necessarily mean that an infection is present. Blood is often present at a site of inflammation but is not specific for infection.
重要的指數: 10歲以下的膀胱炎貓咪只有約1~2%有尿道感染. 這表示約98%的病患並不需要抗生素. 在這個年齡層的病患很少有感染,因為他們產生非常高濃度的尿液(尿液比重大於1.035)而細菌無法在這樣的尿液中生長良好,
Important statistics: Only ~1-2% of cats with cystitis that are under 10 years of age have a urinary tract infection. This means that ~98% of these patients do not need antibiotics. The patients in this age group rarely have infections because they produce very concentrated urine (Urine Specific Gravity greater than 1.035) and bacteria do not grow well in concentrated urine.
10歲以上的膀胱炎病患,感染就比較常見了(約20-30%)但這並不表示年紀較長的膀胱炎貓咪就該自動被給予抗生素. 因為仍有超過70%的病患是無菌性膀胱炎. 為什麼年紀長的貓咪比較容易有泌尿道感染,是因為在這個年齡層的貓咪比較常有腎臟病,而這些病患的腎臟功能不全的時候,就會有比較稀的尿液,細菌較易生長.
In cystitis patients over 10 years of age, infections are more common (~20-30% versus ~1-2%) but that still does not mean that older cats with cystitis should automatically be put on antibiotics. Note that 70+% of these patients have sterile cystitis. The reason that an older cat is more prone to urinary tract infections is because kidney disease is more common in this age group and if the patient does have kidney insufficiency, they will have a more dilute urine which is not as hostile to bacterial growth.
Diabetes and hyperthyroidism are also more common in cats over 10 years of age and both disease render the patient more prone to urinary tract infections.
So how do we determine if the patient has an infection or not? And if they do have an infection, how do we know which is the best antibiotic to use?
C & S測試(培養及敏感度)可以辨別細菌種類且讓獸醫知道哪種抗生素比較適合. 這個測試可以在實驗室外進行,且需要約3天以得到結果. C & S測試所需的尿液必須用導尿獲得,這必須用注射器及針頭直接從膀胱取得. 這個手術對貓咪來說並不痛苦,而且這個方法是唯一能得到最準確資訊的方法,而能適當的使用抗生素治療. 有一個問題是,膀胱炎的貓咪,膀胱中常常沒有足夠的尿液可以取得.
A culture & sensitivity lab test (C & S) identifies the bacteria (if present) and tells the veterinarian which antibiotic is appropriate. This test is run in an outside laboratory and takes ~3 days to get final results. The urine for a C & S needs to be obtained by way of cystocentesis which involves using a syringe and needle to obtain urine directly from the bladder. This is not a painful procedure for the cat and this method is the only way to obtain a sample for accurate information in order to properly treat with antibiotics. One problem, however, is that a sample may be difficult to obtain without waiting a few hours since cats with cystitis urinate frequently and often do not have enough urine in their bladder to get a good sample.
為了解決這個問題,有些獸醫會給這個病患一些皮下輸液. 然後這隻貓就會被關在沒有貓沙的籠子裡. 幾個小時後,通常膀胱就會有滿滿的尿液可以取. 這通常需要2-3個小時,有時候少一點.
To get around this problem, some veterinarians will give the patient a dose of subcutaneous (just under the skin) fluids. The cat is then put into a cage without a litter box. Within a couple of hours, the bladder is usually full enough to obtain a urine sample via cystocentesis. This usually only takes 2-3 hours – sometimes even less time.
再重複一次, 10歲以下的貓咪約98%, 10歲以上的貓咪約70-80%--在臨床上看到有膀胱炎,但沒有感染.
To repeat: ~98% of cats under the age of 10 years, and 70%-80% of cats over 10 years of age, that present with clinical signs of cystitis, do not have an infection.
所有的膀胱癌患者都必須進行C & S測試以證明是否有感染. 我們必須停止在所有的膀胱炎案例中,沒有經過證據就都使用抗生素治療!
A culture and sensitivity (C & S) lab test should be run on all (or at least those with dilute urine or diabetes) patients with cystitis to prove that an infection does – or does not – exist. We have to stop treating all cases of cystitis with antibiotics without supporting evidence of an infection!
As stated above, we know that stress plays a critical role in causing inflammation of the feline bladder. Therefore, an understanding of the vicious cycle involving pain and stress is crucial to the management of this disease.
膀胱炎非常的痛. 疼痛造成壓力,壓力造成膀胱炎. 所以疼痛控制非常重要. Buprinex次一個不錯的止痛藥物. 比Torbugesic(過去常用在貓咪止痛)還好. (Buprinex為醫師處方藥物). 不幸的是,許多獸醫常忽視止痛對於治療貓咪膀胱炎的重要性.
Cystitis is very painful. Pain => stress and stress => cystitis. Consequently, it is very important to address pain management in cystitis patients. Buprinex is a good choice for a pain medication. This is superior to Torbugesic which has been used for pain management in the cat in the past. (Burprinex is a prescription medication that you must get from your veterinarian.) Unfortunately, many veterinarians overlook pain medication as a very important part of the treatment of this common feline problem.
膀胱炎常會導致貓咪開始在貓沙外尿尿,因為貓沙會讓他們聯想到痛苦. 這稱做”貓沙厭惡”. 所以止痛是整個治療中非常重要的部分,而且也對於家裡的清潔很重要. 還有,這是動物止痛的唯一人道方法.
Cystitis often leads a cat to start urinating outside of the litter box due to an association of the litter box with their pain. This is called a “litter box aversion”. Therefore, in addition to pain medication being an important part of the treatment, it is also vital for the cleanliness of the home to do whatever we can to avoid a litter box aversion. And, of course, it is only humane to treat any animal’s pain.
Cystitis will often recur in these patients but on a good note, many cats will have their clinical signs quickly (within a few of days) resolve, especially if their pain is immediately addressed with Buprinex. Another subset of cats will spontaneously go into remission without any treatment at all.
With regard to the overuse of antibiotics in these patients, it has often been said, jokingly, that a cat with cystitis will often stop exhibiting clinical signs within seven days with antibiotics and in one week without antibiotics.
Unfortunately, when people don’t understand that many of these patients experience spontaneous remission on their own with no treatment, antibiotics get the credit when they had nothing to do with the patient’s improvement. When this happens, the abuse of antibiotics continues.
總的來說, 壓力/疼痛控制及水分攝取是預防及治療膀胱炎最重要的事情. 就算貓咪是吃100%的罐罐飲食,仍有可能會有膀胱炎,但機率遠低於吃乾乾的貓咪. 這是一個非常讓人沮喪的疾病,因為獸醫們沒有所有解決此疾病的方法.
In summary, stress/pain management and water content of the diet are the most important issues when considering the prevention and treatment of cystitis. That said, even cats that are fed a 100 percent canned food diet may experience bouts of cystitis but far less commonly than dry food-fed cats. This is a very frustrating disease to deal with and one that the veterinary community does not have all the answers for.
The water content of the diet is easy to control – feed canned food with added water as noted below.
The stress issue is another matter and is not always easy to address since cats can be very sensitive and are often 'silent' in their stress.
談完膀胱炎,接下來說說結晶: 結晶和結石是不同的東西. 結晶在貓咪的尿液中很常見,而且當你發現尿液中有結晶時,使用”泌尿道專用處方”並不是非常適當.
Leaving cystitis and moving on to crystals: It is very important to note that crystals are not the same thing as stones. Crystals are often a normal finding in a cat's urine and it is not necessarily appropriate to put the cat on a "special urinary tract" formula when these are found in the urine.
當你發現尿液中的結晶是”真的”的時候,才是比較嚴重的問題. 在尿液排出體外時,結晶會在很短的時間內形成(30-60分鐘). 如果獸醫沒有馬上看尿液或是將其送到實驗室或是看貓奴帶到醫院的尿液,常會有誤判. 這叫做”錯誤顯性”,而且會造成非必要的擔心,最後常常導致貓咪必須吃不適當,低品質的食物.
Situation is made worse when it is assumed that the crystals are ‘real’ without regard to how the urine sample was handled. It is very important to understand that crystals will often form once outside of the body within a very short (30-60 minutes) period of time. If the veterinarian does not examine the urine right away and either sends it to an outside laboratory or uses a free-catch sample that the owner brought from home, an erroneous diagnosis of crystals may be made. This is called a "false positive" report and results in unnecessary worry on the part of the owner and often leads to the cat being placed on an inappropriate, low quality diet.
What role does diet play with respect to crystals?
當貓咪是食用含水量不足的乾乾, 他們產生較濃的尿液(較高的尿液比重-USG)而且尿量減少(通常是罐罐貓的一半)這表示尿液中有較高的濃度的結晶. 這增加了結晶形成致命結石的機率. 較濃的尿液也會侵害貓咪的膀胱壁,使他們產生痛苦的膀胱炎.
When a cat is on a diet of water-depleted dry food, they produce a more highly concentrated urine (higher urine specific gravity - USG) and they produce a lower volume of urine (often half of what a cat on canned food produces) which means that a higher concentration of crystals will be present in the urine. This increases the chance of these crystals forming life-threatening stones. It is also thought that the highly concentrated urine may be very irritating to the bladder wall in some cats, predisposing them to painful cystitis.
Adding 1-2 TBS of water (plain or flavored – such as tuna water, clam juice, chicken or beef broth) per meal of canned food is very beneficial, as is using water fountains.
自製鮪魚汁:用一罐的鮪魚,加入三杯水,將其打碎再放置20分鐘. 將水倒到製冰盒裡, 冷凍以保持新鮮. 用保鮮膜以保持它的味道.
Make your own tuna water by taking one can of tuna and mixing the contents into 3 cups of water. Mash it around and let it sit for ~20 minutes. Pour the water into covered ice cube trays. Freeze to prolong the freshness. Use covered trays to keep the water tasting and smelling fresh.
If you are still worrying about crystals, consider this analogy:
If leaves keep falling on your driveway (which is a normal situation) and you don’t regularly hose down or sweep your driveway, those leaves will build up and cause a problem. If you picture crystals as the leaves in this analogy, it is easy to see how canned food does a much better job of ‘hosing down/flushing’ your cat’s bladder than dry food does.
再重複一次,結晶並不是貓咪尿液中的不正常發現. 但是如果人類仍堅持餵貓咪吃含水量不足的飲食,它會成為一個問題. 結石,或是大量的結晶,會造成致命的膀胱破裂,因為它們會阻塞尿液的排出.
To repeat, crystals are not an abnormal finding in cat urine. However, they can become a problem if Man continues to insist on feeding the cat a water-depleted diet. Stones, or a large amount of crystals, can cause a fatal rupture of the bladder by blocking the outflow of urine. (See Opie’s story at catinfo.org - Feline Urinary Tract Health.)
Any cat that is repeatedly entering the litter box but not voiding any urine is in need of IMMEDIATE medical attention!
這是為什麼使用凝結式貓沙這麼重要. 凝結式的貓沙可以讓你看到貓咪的尿量. 看看尿尿球的形狀是像葡萄乾? 葡萄? 高爾夫球? 李子? 網球? 非凝結式的貓沙並不夠乾淨,因為你不可能去掉所有的尿液而且它沒辦法讓你觀察尿量.
This is one reason why it is so important to use a clumping litter. Clumping litter allows you to see just how much, if any, urine is being voided. Is the urine ball the size of a raisin? A grape? A golf ball? A plum? A tennis ball? Non-clumping litters are not sanitary since it is impossible to remove all of the urine several times/day (see The Litter Box at catinfo.org) and they do not allow you to quantify the amount of urine being passed.
Urine pH is often considered when discussing urinary tract crystals but we really need to stop focusing on pH. Again, a proper amount of water in the diet is the important issue here - not urine pH.
The one exception to this would involve the temporary (1-2 months) use of a prescription acidifying diet such as Hill’s canned (not dry) s/d - with added water - for struvite stones or a large amount of struvite crystals - especially in a male cat since their long, narrow urethral puts them at greater risk for a lifethreatening blockage.
This diet is not to be used for long-term feeding!
It also must be understood that if the cat has calcium oxylate stones or crystals, this diet will make matters worse for the patient since calcium oxylate forms in acidic environments. The patient should be re-checked with xrays or ultrasound within 3-4 weeks after starting the diet in order to monitor progress, or lack of progress, in dissolution of the stones/crystals.
Other than as stated above, I do not use the prescription diets or any over-the-counter ‘Urinary Tract Health’ diets. Many of these often-prescribed feline lower urinary tract diets are formulated to make the urine acidic but it is thought that these low magnesium, acidifying diets may actually exacerbate painful cystitis. Also, these acidifying diets often end up promoting calcium oxylate stone formation and can also lead to hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) which can cause or exacerbate kidney disease.
It is also important to note - for those people still stuck on worrying about the urine pH - that there are many factors which determine the pH of urine and only one of them is diet.
With regard to dry food and urinary tract health, aside from the lack of water in this type of diet, there is also a correlation between the consumption of a high carbohydrate diet (most dry foods are very high in carbohydrates) and the formation of struvite crystals because carbohydrate-based diets promote an alkaline urine.
獸醫常會要貓咪吃希爾斯處方乾乾c/d跟x/d,但是這些食品只含有10%的水,且含有不適物種的原料及令人質疑的保存劑. 它們也含有非常高的碳水化合物(c/d:42%). 請注意c/d乾乾的前幾項主要原料,並同時記得,你的貓咪是食肉動物. 這很明顯的不是我會建議給任何貓咪的食品.
Veterinarians often prescribe Hill’s Prescription dry c/d and x/d for urinary tract problems but again, these diets are only ten percent water and contain a high level of species-inappropriate ingredients and questionable preservatives. They are also very high in carbohydrates with dry c/d containing 42 percent of its weight as carbohydrates. Please note the first few ingredients in dry c/d while remembering that your cat is a carnivore. This is certainly not a diet that I would recommend for any cat.
釀酒用米Brewers rice, 雞肉副產品粉chicken by-product meal, 玉米麵筋粉corn gluten meal, 豬脂肪pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), 雞肝香料chicken liver flavor, 牛磺酸taurine, 以BHT及BHA保存preserved with BHT and BHA
發炎性腸病Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD):
IBD會造成嘔吐,腹瀉及/或便秘. IBD也會有體重減輕的癥狀. 這種有很多未知的問題造成這種疾病,但是開始讓貓咪有一個對他們腸胃較好的飲食是比較有邏輯的.
IBD can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and/or constipation in the cat. IBD can also present with weight loss as the only clinical sign. There are many unanswered questions with respect to this disease process, but it seems logical to start to “treat” a gastrointestinal problem in the cat with a species-appropriate diet.
這些貓咪被餵高量的類固醇及高穀物的處方乾乾. 我覺得這個常見的治療方法必須被摒棄. 有數字指出當貓咪不再食用乾乾,IBD的症狀會大幅的減輕.
Too often these cats are treated with a high level of steroids and a prescription grain-laden, dry food diet. I feel very strongly that this common therapeutic regimen needs to be abandoned. There are an impressive number of anecdotal reports of cats that were terribly ill with IBD exhibiting dramatic improvement when all dry food was removed from their diet.
Taking it even one step further, there are many reports of cats with IBD that improved tremendously on a balanced, grain-less, raw-meat or lightly-cooked meat diet. See catnutrition.org for more information on IBD and diet. Also, see the Making Cat Food page at catinfo.org for a balanced recipe that has helped many IBD cats.
Steroids – long-term or temporary - are necessary in some cases but we need to focus more heavily on feeding these patients an appropriate diet rather than relying solely on immunosuppressive medications.
肥胖是一個非常常見且很嚴重的健康問題. 例如,過重的貓咪發生糖尿病的機率是正常貓咪的4倍. 胖貓比較容易有骨頭的問題,而且常常沒辦法好好的清理自己. 嚴格的食肉動物天生喜歡從蛋白質獲得能量,再來是脂肪,最後是碳水化合物. 碳水化合物占能量來源的最小部分,而沒用到的碳水化合物會轉化並以脂肪的型式儲存. 那些所謂的”低脂”配方專注於降低脂肪含量,而降低了食品裡的營養. 這些配方會提高蛋白質及/或碳水化合物的含量. 因為蛋白質(肉)比碳水化合物(穀物)貴, 寵物食品製造商會偏向提高碳水化合物的含量,而使這個食品非常的不適物種且不健康.
Obesity is an extremely common and very serious health problem in cats. For instance, overweight cats are four times more likely to develop diabetes than cats that are at an optimal weight. Obese cats are more prone to orthopedic problems and often cannot clean themselves properly. Obligate carnivores are designed to meet their energy needs with a high protein, moderate fat diet with little to no carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are minimally used for energy and those that are not used are converted to and stored as fat. The so-called “light” diets that are on the market have targeted the fat content as the nutrient to be decreased. The choice is then to raise either the protein or carbohydrate content, or both. Since protein (meat) is more expensive than carbohydrates (grains), pet food manufacturers raise the carbohydrate levels in these foods making them very species-inappropriate and unhealthy.
An optimal weight loss diet should be high in protein (over 40% of calories), moderate in fat (under 50% of calories), and low in carbohydrates (under 10% of calories). See the Merrick line of foods for examples of this profile.
Many cats on the commercial “light” or “less active” diets either do not lose weight or do lose weight but also lose muscle mass along with the loss of fat. This is not our goal. The goal is to lose fat while maintaining muscle mass.
In several studies, cats fed a high protein/low carbohydrate diet lost weight but maintained their lean body mass in comparison to cats fed a high carbohydrate/low fat diet.
Many caretakers feed very small amounts of these ‘light’ diets hoping that their cat will lose weight.
However, feeding a small amount of a diet that is inappropriate for the species is not the answer! The caretaker often ends up with either a crabby, overweight cat or a thinner cat that may have lost too much muscle mass.
See Molly’s and Bennie’s story of weight loss at Feline Obesity - catinfo.org - to read about how these sweet cats went from inactive obese cats that could barely walk or clean themselves to healthier, happier felines.
Molly’s veterinarian had prescribed Hill's Prescription dry r/d for her and instructed her caretaker to feed Molly only very small portions - and to put a shock collar on her to keep her away from her housemates' food. This is obviously not sound - or humane - obesity management advice. Hill's Prescription r/d is a poor quality, low fat/high carbohydrate diet that contains 33 percent carbohydrates and the following - less than optimal – ingredients including a high level of fiber which a feline intestinal tract is not designed to process:
雞肉副產品粉Chicken by-product meal, 玉米粉corn meal, 纖維素粉powdered cellulose 18.5% (a source of fiber), 玉米麵筋粉corn gluten meal, 雞肝香料chicken liver flavor, 植物油vegetable oil, 牛磺酸taurine, 肉鹼L-carnitine, 以BHT, BHA及ethoxyquin 保存preserved with BHT, BHA and ethoxyquin.
There are much healthier – and less expensive - ways to address feline obesity.
脂肪肝Hepatic Lipidosis (Fatty Liver Disease):
這是貓咪最常見的代謝性肝臟問題. 超過48小時沒有進食,或是其他原因都很有可能會導致這個嚴重且常常是致命的疾病. 就算是瘦貓也有可能得到, 過重的貓咪有更高的機率. 餵食高蛋白,低碳水化合物的飲食可以幫助貓咪達到較好的健康體重,而使他們較不會得到這個疾病.
This is the most common metabolic liver disease of cats. Cats that go longer than 48 hours without eating, for any reason, are in danger of developing this serious, and often fatal, disease. Even though thin cats can end up with hepatic lipidosis, overweight cats are much more prone to experiencing this disease. Feeding a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet helps keep cats at an optimal, healthy body weight and, in turn, makes them less likely to end up with fatty liver disease.
人家常說吃乾乾的貓咪比較沒有口腔的疾病,這是非常不正確的,而且並沒有任何的研究證實這個說法. 這個說法在獸醫及大眾間傳開,這個迷思不斷的傷害貓咪,因為他們會一直被餵不健康的食物以保持牙齒乾淨. 乾乾會使口腔健康的這個說法, 就像說人類常吃餅乾會使口腔健康是一樣的.
Long-standing claims that cats have less dental disease when they are fed dry food versus canned food are grossly overrated, inaccurate, and are not supported by recent studies. This frequently stated (among veterinarians and lay people) myth continues to harm cats by perpetuating the idea that their food bowls need to be filled up with an unhealthy diet in order to keep their teeth clean. The idea that dry food promotes dental health makes about as much sense as the idea that crunchy cookies would promote dental health in a human.
首先,乾乾很硬但易碎,這些碎粒對牙齒沒有任何的效果. 第二,貓咪的下顎及牙齒是用來撕碎肉,而不是用來咬碎乾乾. 第三,許多貓咪會直接把乾乾吞下去.
First, dry food is hard, but brittle, and merely shatters with little to no abrasive effect on the teeth. Second, a cat's jaws and teeth are designed for shearing and tearing meat - not biting down on dry kibble. Third, many cats swallow the majority of their dry food whole.
There are many factors – known and unknown - that contribute to dental disease in the cat such as genetics, viruses, diet, and the fact that cats do not brush their teeth like humans do. There remain many unanswered questions concerning the fact that cats often suffer from poor dental health but one very obvious answer lies in the fact that Man feeds the cat a diet that does not even come close to what they would eat in their natural state.
當貓咪在野外吃他們的獵物時,他們會撕碎肉,皮,骨頭,筋及韌帶. 這是吃乾乾或罐罐不會遇到的. 乾乾及罐罐都無法模仿貓咪的正常飲食像是老鼠,小鳥,兔子等等.
When cats consume their prey in the wild, they are tearing at flesh, hide, bones, tendons, and ligaments. This is a far cry from the consistency of dry or canned food.
Neither dry kibble nor canned food comes close to mimicking a cat’s normal diet of mice, birds, rabbits, etc.
Given what a cat does eat in nature, it makes much more sense to be feeding part of the diet in the form of large chunks of meat (as large as you can get your cat to chew on) or gizzards (tough and fibrous) which a cat’s teeth are designed to chew. Raw meat is ‘tougher’ to chew than cooked meat so I prefer to use raw – or parboiled - meat to promote dental health. (See Making Cat Food - Dental Health at catinfo.org.)
Notice the phrase “part of the diet” in the above sentence. It is very important to understand that plain meat (ie - without bones or another source of calcium) is very unbalanced since there is minimal calcium in meat. Remember that when a cat eats his normal prey, he is consuming the bones along with the meat.
將純肉當作為市售罐罐的補充食品,占全日熱量的15%是最安全的. 例如, 如果貓咪一天吃6盎司的罐罐,你可以餵他5盎司的罐罐加1盎司的肌肉.
When fed as a supplement to most commercial canned foods, it is safe to feed ~15% of the daily calories in the form of plain meat. For example, if a cat is eating 6 ounces of canned food per day, you could feed him 5 ounces of canned food plus 1 ounce of chunked muscle meat per day.
When people ask me “how often should my cats be fed chunks of meat?”, I reply “how often do you brush your own teeth?”
說到刷牙,這是目前增進貓咪口腔健康的最好方法. Google “Cornell brushing your cat’s teeth”可以找到一個不錯的示範影片.
And speaking of brushing teeth, this is, by far, the best way to promote your cat's dental health. Google ‘Cornell brushing your cat’s teeth’ for a great instructional video.
Please pay close attention to the statement in the video regarding a thorough dental exam by your veterinarian before starting a brushing program.
許多貓咪的嘴巴很痛,但沒有其它的外在徵兆. 如果你試圖幫嘴巴痛的貓咪刷牙,你會得的是一隻驚嚇的貓咪及對牙刷深深的厭惡感. 如果這樣的厭惡感產生,而你的獸醫發現貓咪有嘴巴痛的情形,你永遠無法讓貓咪接受刷牙這件事了.
Many cats have very painful mouths but show no outward signs of this pain. If you try to brush your cat's teeth in the face of a painful mouth, all you will end up with is a cat that is scared - along with developing a strong aversion to toothbrushes. If this aversion occurs, you may never get him to accept toothbrushing once you have addressed the painful mouth with your vet.
請了解,我並不是在說罐罐一定對牙齒是比較好的. 要達到最好的口腔健康,貓咪不該吃罐罐或乾乾,因為這兩種都不能增進牙齒健康,但我們必須解決這個問題,餵貓咪吃”完整的獵物”並不是那麼實際,雖然這對他們的牙齒很好. 解決辦法是至少給他們一些肌肉去咬以及停止認為乾乾會增進貓咪的口腔健康.
Please understand that I am not saying that canned food is necessarily better for teeth than dry food. For optimal dental health, a cat should not be eating either canned or dry food since neither food type promotes healthy teeth but we have to work with what is practical in a typical home setting and feeding a cat a 'whole carcass prey' diet is not terribly practical - even if it would be great for their teeth. The compromise is to at least give them some muscle meat to chew on and to stop fooling ourselves into thinking that dry food promotes dental health in our cats.
貓咪氣喘/過敏性氣管疾病Feline Asthma/Allergic Airway Disease:
Many cats have had their respiratory symptoms (coughing/ difficulty breathing) subside considerably, or disappear completely, once they were placed on a grain-free canned food diet, or a meat-based home-prepared diet. Some of these struggling cats may have been simply reacting to the grain proteins found in high levels in dry food or they may have been reacting to storage mites or cockroach antigens that are present in dry foods.
Sadly, many cats exhibiting debilitating lung disease are simply put on an immunosuppressive dose of steroids - while still being fed an inappropriate diet.
While steroids are necessary in many cases of airway disease, they are not addressing the root of the problem which can, in many cases, be an allergy to proteins in the form of species-inappropriate grains, and insect antigens. Steroids can cause diabetes in cats and also render them vulnerable to infections from viruses, bacteria, and fungal agents so it is very important to make sure you have ruled out diet as a cause of the cat's respiratory symptoms.