Interview with Jean Hofve, DVM about Cat Allergies
by JENNY on SEPTEMBER 23, 2011
原文在此(Original article here)
The ownership and copyright of this article belongs to the original writer and this is just a translated version, only for sharing.
Thank you to Jean Hofve, DVM of Denver, CO for taking the time to answer these questions. If you have similar cat health questions or a cat health topic that you’d like to see covered on the site, please contact me at jenny [at] floppycats [dot] com with more ideas.
You can learn more about cat health by reading Dr. Jean’s book, The Complete Guide to Holistic Cat Care: An Illustrated Handbook.
You can learn more from Jean’s website as well, Little Big Cat.
What kinds of ingredients do you see most often causing allergies?
依我的經驗, 魚, 奶製品和雞肉, 但是依照獸醫研究結果, 最常見的貓咪過敏源是魚,牛和奶製品.
In my experience, fish, dairy, and chicken; but according to veterinary research, the most common cat allergens are fish, beef, and dairy.
What specific brands of foods do you recommend/not recommend?
我不會在公布這些品牌, 那是”給他一條魚”我教的是”怎麼釣魚”…學習技能才能在所有情況下應用. 例如, 這些東西是你應該要避免的:
I try not to name names (in public!); that’s “giving a man a fish.” I teach shopping guidelines…that’s “teaching a man to fish” with skills that can be applied to any situation. For instance, here are the main things to avoid:
- 將副產品做為主要的動物性蛋白質來源use of by-products as the primary animal protein
- 將植物性蛋白質(麩或是濃縮精華)作為動物性蛋白質的替代品use of vegetable proteins (gluten or concentrate) as a substitute for animal protein
- 含有玉米或是大豆產品(大多為基因改造的)contains corn or soybean products (most is genetically modified)
- 含有甲萘醌,是一個可能有害的維他命K形式contains menadione, a potentially harmful form of Vitamin K
- 含有乙氧喹啉, BHA, BHT,沒食子酸丙酯或其他化學合成的防腐劑contains ethoxyquin, BHA, BHT, propyl gallate, or other synthetic preservatives
- 貓狗共用的食物one product labeled for both dogs and cats
- 含有乾重比30%以下的蛋白質contains less than 30% protein (on a dry matter basis)
What symptoms do we see in our cats that lead you to a diagnosis of food allergy?
Gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea) or skin symptoms (rashes, itchiness)
How do you determine which particular ingredient is causing the allergy?
貓咪抽血及皮膚測試是眾所皆知不準確的. 我會用飲食剃除法. 你餵食一個單一原料的食物8-12周,或至少兩周, 等到症狀都解除. 然後你可以慢慢的將其它原料加進去,一次一種.
Because blood tests and skin tests are notoriously inaccurate in cats, I use an elimination diet trial. You feed a novel-ingredient diet exclusively (no cheating!) for 8-12 weeks or at least 2 weeks after all symptoms have resolved. Then you can start adding ingredients back in, one at a time.
Do you recommend supplements even when feeding premium food? What kind?
Yes. I recommend for all cats:
- 奧美加3脂肪酸Omega-3 fatty acids
- 消化酵素Digestive enzymes
What do we do if our regular vet recommends a food that is not on your list? How can we convince our regular vet that the food you recommend is better?
他可以做的只是給你建議. 你不需要遵照他的指示. 這是你的選擇. 不要浪費口舌去說服那些從踏進獸醫學校起被希爾思洗腦的獸醫. 然而, 如果你的獸醫顯示出一點開放的態度, 給她看Debra Zoran醫生(2000及2011年)發表在美國獸醫醫學協會(AVMA)的兩篇文章. 她有列出適合貓咪的飲食.
All your vet can do is give advice. You don’t have to follow that advice. It’s always your choice. Don’t waste your breath trying to convince a veterinarian who has been brain-washed by Science Diet ever since the first day of vet school. However, if your vet shows any signs of open-mindedness, show her the two articles (2000 and 2011) published in the Journal of the AVMA from Dr. Debra Zoran of Texas A&M. She makes a great case for cat-appropriate diets.
Zoran DL. The carnivore connection to nutrition in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Dec 1;221(11):1559-67. (Online at: catinfo.org/docs/zorans_article.pdf)
Zoran DL, Buffington CA. Effects of nutrition choices and lifestyle changes on the well-being of cats, a carnivore that has moved indoors. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011 Sep 1;239(5):596-606.
你有建議的全衡獸醫嗎? 如果有的話, 我們要到哪裡找當地的全衡獸醫? 我們要到哪裡可以找到件一的好全衡獸醫?
Do you recommend a holistic vet or a more conventional vet? If so, where would we go to find local holistic vets? Where could we find recommendations of good holistic vets?
我建議找綜合科的獸醫, 這些獸醫願意使用常規及替代療法已讓你的寵物有最好的治療. 只用其中一種是不夠的, 就像如果貓咪的腳斷了,你只給他草藥並不是最好的方法! 這個網站有一些全衡獸醫的列表.
I recommend an integrative veterinarian—one who is willing to use both conventional and alternative remedies to create the best program for your pet. Excluding one or the other is throwing the baby out with the bathwater; both methods have their place. For instance, if a cat has a broken leg, just giving it herbs isn’t the best plan! There is a directory of holistic practitioners at www.holisticvetlist.com.
What kind of tests do you do to determine food versus environmental allergies (this one might be a repetition of one above)?
我比較喜歡用”吸入式”過敏或是”過敏性疾病”, 我想這是你想問的. “環境過敏”聽起來比較像接觸式的過敏. 像是狗床裡面含有的松木屑就是一種過敏源.
I prefer to say “inhalant” allergy or “atopy”–I think that’s what you mean here. “Environmental” sounds more like contact allergy; such as an allergy to the cedar shavings in a dog bed.
不幸的是, 吸入式和食物過敏的症狀通常很類似, 吸入式過敏比較會反應在皮膚,而非腸胃. 我還是會用飲食剃除法,因為簡化食物通常也對吸入式過敏有幫助. 就像我前面提到的, 抽血及皮膚測試對貓咪來說並不是非常的有幫助.
Unfortunately, the symptoms of food and inhalant allergies are often identical; though inhalant symptoms are a little more likely to show up in skin than in the gut. I still use an elimination diet, because simplifying the diet will often help with inhalant allergies as well. As I mentioned, blood tests and skin tests are not very helpful in cats.
Can you tell us a little about symptoms of environmental allergies we can look for?
大多數會是皮膚問題, 善也有可能會造成腸胃問題. 症狀通常很難跟食物過敏分別. 食物過敏會微微的傾向表現在臉,耳和腳. 但過敏性疾病也會. 如果是狗, 大部分的過敏不是因為食物,而是吸入的粒子, 像是灰塵和花粉. 但是貓咪比較高比例是食物過敏, 大概有一半都是.
These will mostly be skin symptoms, but can also show up as tummy problems; the symptoms are usually indistinguishable from food allergy symptoms. Food allergies do have a vague tendency to show up around the face, ears, and feet more than other areas, but atopy can do the same. In dogs, most allergies are not to food but to inhaled particles such as dust and pollen. But cats have a higher rate of food allergy—perhaps up to 50%.
有很多新的食物都是完全無穀的. 有些是不含小麥,玉米,大豆. 你比較建議哪一種? 無穀會比不含玉米的好嗎?
A lot of new foods are completely grain-free. Some are wheat, corn, soy, etc.-free. Do you have a preference? Is grain-free preferable to say corn-free?
穀物被誤會了. 不是所有的穀物都容易致敏, 但是這是為什麼人們覺得應該要避免. 但是他們含有很高的碳水化合物. 簡單的碳水化合物會很快的轉化成糖. 高碳水化合物的飲食很容易讓貓咪有肥胖,糖尿病, 泌尿道疾病及其他健康問題. 我會特別避免玉米, 因為這個常常都是基改作物.
Grains have gotten a bad rap for the wrong reasons. They are not all that allergenic, but that is why people think they should avoid them. But they are high in carbohydrates;, especially simple carbs that quickly turn to sugar. In cats, a high carb diet tends to cause obesity, diabetes, urinary tract disease, and many other health problems. I avoid corn in particular because it is very likely to be genetically modified.
Problems with “grain-free” foods:
- 他們不一定會含有比較低的碳水化合物, 因為大部分都由馬鈴薯或是豌豆代替, 高澱粉的植物也一樣是個麻煩.They are not necessarily lower carbohydrate because most of them simply substitute potatoes or peas – high-starch vegetables that are just as problematic.
- 很多都會含有較高的蛋白質, 蛋白質是利尿的, 所以這些貓咪有可能會變得比較容易脫水 Many of them are higher protein. Protein is diuretic, so cats will become even more dehydrated on these foods.
- 通常會有較高的脂肪, 如果你餵吃到飽(我不建議這樣餵食), 大部分的貓咪會增加不少重量.They are also usually higher in fat; if fed free-choice (which I do not recommend) most cats will gain considerable weight.
我們看到有很多是不含小麥,玉米和大豆的食物會改用米來代替. 你覺得米是常見的過敏源嗎? 貓咪吃米會得到什麼益處嗎?
We see a lot of wheat, corn, and soy-free foods using rice as the bulk. Do you think rice is a common allergen? Do cats receive any benefit from eating rice in their food?
不, 米比起其他穀物較不致敏. 沒有益處, 他還是只是個簡單的碳水化合物.
No, rice is relatively less allergenic than other grains. And no, no benefit; it is still a simple carb.
那低敏食品呢? 你覺得這些可以幫助貓咪的食物過敏嗎? 如果是的話, 你建議哪一種的?
What about limited-ingredient foods? Do you see them as a way to help cats with food allergies? If so, what kinds do you recommend?
這些是我會用來做飲食剃除法的食物. 有一些處方食品, 但是他們並沒有很好的品質. 有些比較”全衡”的公司, 像是Natural Balance. 他們做的低敏食品不錯.
Yes; these are the foods I would use in an elimination trial. There are several veterinary diets but they are not very good quality. Several of the more “holistic” companies, such as Natural Balance, make decent “hypoallergenic” foods.
貓咪是肉食性動物. 所以你覺得那些小紅莓,南瓜,紅蘿蔔等等的食物怎麼樣? 會比較高品質嗎? 這些真的會對貓咪的飲食比較好嗎? 我想這不是個好主意. 這些原料(用來幫助便秘,泌尿道問題)可以用全濕食來替代改善. 增加碳水化合物在乾糧裡面只是像把洋芋片加到玉米片裡面一樣, 都是垃圾食物!
We know cats are carnivores, so what do you think about the more recent influx of ingredients such as cranberries, pumpkin, carrots, etc. in the higher quality foods? Are these really beneficial in our cats’ diets?
I think it’s a very bad idea. The conditions for which these items would be used (constipation, urinary tract problems) can be completely resolved simply by feeding all wet food. Adding more carbs to a dry diet is like adding potato chips to corn chips; it’s all still junk!
你建議乾糧,濕食,生食或是混合餵食? 如果是混合餵食, 要用怎樣的比例?
Do you recommend dry food, wet food, raw, or a combination? If a combination, what percentage?
濕食, 所有高含水量的飲食, 不管是罐頭, 生食或是加水還原的冷凍乾燥食品. 貓咪需要那些水分. 乾糧並不是個適合貓咪的飲食, 它對貓咪沒有好處. 它只能用做零食.
Wet—any high-moisture diet, whether canned, raw, or reconstituted freeze-dried. Cats need the moisture. Dry food is not an appropriate diet for cats; it has no benefit for the cat. Use it as a treat only.
Can you tell us about high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets for our cats? Can you tell us which one is preferable?
高碳水化合物的飲食對貓咪來說是不適合的. 貓咪是嚴格的肉食性動物, 天生要吃以肉為主的食物. 成貓完全不需要碳水化合物. 高蛋白質, 高脂肪, 高水分的飲食對貓咪來說才是最好的.
High-carbohydrate diets are not appropriate for cats. Cats are obligate carnivores, designed to eat a diet based on meat. Adult cats have zero physiological need for carbohydrates. A high-protein, high-fat, high-moisture diet is best for cats.
What protein sources do you recommend?
Any animal protein except fish.