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貓狗的健康體重管理

Healthy Weight Management for Dogs and Cats

October 6, 2011

By jhofve77

營養專家喜歡將體重管理講為進來的熱量-出去的熱量”.但是誰能真的了解自己的飲食含有多少. 這並沒有那麼簡單! 有很多的因素會影響體重,像是基因, 代謝率,天氣甚至品種.最後,我們人類唯一能控制的就是飲食跟運動-所以,我們來看看為什麼及如何管理寵物的體重.

Nutrition experts like to portray weight control as a simple matter of “calories in minus calories out.” But as anyone who’s ever been on a diet knows all too well, it isn’t quite that easy! There are many factors that affect weight, such as genetics, metabolic rate, weather, and even breed. Ultimately, the only ones we humans can control for our pets are diet and exercise—so let’s see why and how to manage our pets’ weight.

在我們忙碌的生活中,我們有時會用點心或是額外的食物當做我們沒和寵物好好相處的補償.或是因為我們太寵愛他們而使他們變成胖丁.一些些點心,我們晚餐的一點點,或是額外的一匙食物,都是把寵物的健康與壽命拿來當賭注.與肥胖相關的疾病可以列出一長串,像是關節炎,心臟相關疾病,糖尿病,發炎性腸道疾病,肝與腎相關疾病,尿道疾病,皮膚與披毛問題還有很多很多我們該當個大人管管家裡的毛小孩吃些什麼.

In our busy lives, we may sometimes use treats or extra food as a substitute for quality time with our pets; or our pets get a little chunky because we just love to pamper them. But letting a pet become overweight is actually the opposite of love—we’re truly risking their health and lives for a few treats, a nibble from our dinner plates, or an extra spoonful of chow. The list of obesity-related diseases is a long one and includes arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, liver and kidney disease, urinary tract disease, skin and coat issues, and many more. It’s up to us to be the “adults” in the family and call the shots on what our furry “kids” are eating

不幸的是,過重在貓狗已經非常常見.事實上,很多人會認為理想的身型太瘦了. 研究指出,標準體重的狗狗顯著的活的比較久. Purina公司做了一個長期的研究,看看拉不拉多犬裡,正常的和瘦的狗狗壽命長短差異. 餵食量比較少的狗狗,至少比餵食量多的狗狗多活兩年,而且像是一些退化性疾病(如關節炎)也被明顯的延緩了. 記住,這個是比較普通及體重過輕的狗狗.過重的寵物,不管是壽命,健康及舒適感都更加不好.

Unfortunately, overweight has become the norm for our dogs and cats. In fact, many people would consider the “ideal” body condition as too thin. Yet research has shown that dogs live longer–significantly longer–if they’re kept slightly underweight. A long-term study done by Purina looked at the difference in lifespan between Labrador Retrievers who were kept slimmer versus normal Labs (who were fed according to Purina’s own directions for that food!). The dogs who were fed less lived TWO years longer, and the onset of degenerative diseases such as arthritis was significantly delayed. Remember, this comparison was between normal dogs and underweight dogs. Overweight pets’ lives, health, and comfort are damaged even more.

另一個研究顯示,不管是狗狗或是貓咪,餵食高蛋白,低碳水化合物的飲食都可以有健康的瘦身”,肌肉比例也會比餵食含有多纖維的減重配方好. 當我們思考貓狗的祖先時,就知道這是非常有道理的.他們被設計來吃其他動物-高蛋白,相對高脂肪及非常低的碳水化合物.罐罐,生食或是均衡的自製飲食對貓狗是最好的,由其是貓咪.因為他的膀胱需要這些食物裡的水分及高蛋白. 乾乾非常不適合貓咪.

Other research has shown that, in both cats and dogs, feeding a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet results in healthier weight loss and better muscle mass retention than high-fiber “weight loss” diets. This makes perfect sense when we consider that our dogs’ and cats’ ancestors—and their current cousins—are designed to eat prey animals that are just that: high in protein, relatively high in fat, and very low in carbohydrates. Canned, raw, or properly balanced homemade diets are ideal for both dogs and cats; and are especially important for cats, who need the extra moisture and high protein for urinary health. Dry food is not recommended for cats, period.

低脂體重控制配方會降低脂肪及蛋白質含量,並添加較多的纖維及碳水化合物.但是這就破壞了應有的營養平衡(高蛋白,低碳水化合物).如果讓寵物吃低脂配方吃到飽”,大多數的寵物反而會增重.以碳水化合物為主要成分的食物無法滿足貓狗的需求,所以寵物們會吃更多的這種食物以滿足. 再來,一個最近的研究顯示在許多不同牌子的低脂配方,卡路里含量非常不同,有的甚至卡路里高於正常配方!

“Light” and “weight control” diets tend to be lower in fat and protein, and higher in fiber and carbohydrates, than comparable regular foods. But this is taking the nutritional balance in the exact opposite direction from the natural high-protein, low-carb carnivore diet our pets were designed to eat. If the amount of “light” food being fed is not restricted, most pets will gain weight on that food. Carb-based diets just aren’t satisfying to the canine and feline palate, so pets will eat more of the food to get more of what they want and need. Moreover, a recent study showed tremendous variation in the amount of calories in different brands of “light” foods–some were higher in calories than other brands’ regular foods!

如果你的寵物嗜點心成癮,這有些步驟可以在不讓寵物失望的情況下幫助你降低他對點心的需求. 如果點心很大塊,把他撥小一點,你的寵物很快的會適應並滿足這個尺寸. 給予低卡路里的點心,或是用乾燥的雞肉(或其他種肉),這可以增加他的蛋白質攝取而且碳水化合物非常低. 限制他們吃骨頭,或其他咬咬點心,這些很多都含有非常高的脂肪,會增加許多的熱量. 對你的寵物來說,你的關心和愛比點心重要. 不管你給了多少點心,這些熱量都必須從每天的扣達中扣掉,這表示,主食的餵食量必須減少!

If your pet is a treat junky, there are things you can do to moderate the number of treat calories your dog or cat is getting without making your pet (or you!) feel deprived. For larger treats, break them into smaller pieces. Your pet will quickly adjust to the new size and feel just as satisfied. Give a lower calorie treat; or try treats made from dehydrated chicken or other meat that add primarily protein and little or no carbs. Limit rawhide bones, marrow bones, and other “chew” treats; many of them are very high in fat and will load a huge amount of calories to your pet’s daily intake. To your pet, it’s more about the attention and love from you that your companion associates with treats, than about the treat itself. Whatever treats or “shared” food your pet gets, you need to deduct treat calories from meals to balance the day’s total. Yes, that means the meal needs to be smaller!

為了提供一個完整且適當的飲食,這裡有些添加物可以幫助你的寵物得到最好的營養,可以增強免疫力,增進整體健康以及長壽. 包括: (1)Omega-3脂肪酸, (2)消化酵素, (3) 益生菌

In addition to providing a wholesome, appropriate diet, there are supplements that will help your pet get the most from food, as well as strengthen the immune system, optimize overall health, and support longevity. These include: (1) Omega-3 fatty acids, (2) digestive enzymes, and (3) probiotics. (Click here for article on “Top 4 Pet Supplements; the fourth, antioxidants, are needed for immune system support.)

不幸的是,計算卡路里是了解我們餵貓狗吃了什麼最好的方式.還好,算寵物吃的比算人吃的容易.因為我們吃的食物太多種了. 以寵物來說,大多我們只要算幾種食物跟點心.

Unfortunately, counting calories is the best way to understand what we’re feeding our cats and dogs. Happily for those of us who recoil at math, it’s much easier for our pets than for people, who need to know calorie counts in a huge variety of food. Most of the time, we’ll be dealing with just a few foods and treats.

寵物食品卡路里Calories in Pet Food*

這裡有個簡單的表格可以告訴你不同寵物食品裡含有的卡路里.

Here’s a simple chart to give you a ballpark estimate of different types of pet food:

Food Type

Cat

Dog

Dry Adult (/乾乾)

200-600 kcal/cup

300-600 kcal/cup

Dry Diet(乾乾)

200-400 kcal/cup

200-400 kcal/cup

Canned Adult(/罐罐)

80-200 kcal/5.5-6 oz. can

200-400 kcal/12.5-13.2 oz. can

Canned Diet(罐罐)

80-200 kcal/5.5-6 oz. can

200-400 kcal/12.5-13.2 oz. can

Raw(生食)

300-550 kcal/cup

300-550 kcal/cup

Treats(點心)

10-300 kcal/treat

10-300 kcal/treat

*我們通常是以千卡(kcal)來看.減重配方跟一般配方可能差異不大.卡路里通常不會附在標籤上,只有某些牌子有.去製造商的網站確認,或是打電話問食品裡含有的卡路里含量.

*What we commonly refer to as a “calorie” is technically a kilocalorie, or kcal. There may be little or no difference between regular and “diet” foods. Calorie information is not required to be on the label, although some makers provide it. Check the manufacturer’s website, or call for calorie info on each particular food or treat.

計算寵物的卡路里需求 Calculate Your Pet’s Caloric Needs

你的寵物目前體重______ (______ 公斤),一公斤約為2.2.

Your pet’s current weight: ______lbs (______ kg)  

To calculate kg, divide lbs. by 2.2

你的寵物的身體情況分數: _______ . 理想的分數約在4左右.

Your pet is estimated at _______ on the Body Condition Score Chart on the right. The ideal BCS for disease prevention and longevity is about 4.

 身體情況分數  

你的寵物的理想體重: _______ (公斤; 依品種不同,獸醫可以給你一個好的預測值)

Your pet’s ideal weight: _________ (in kg; this may be based on breed standards, or your veterinarian can give you a good estimate.)

接下來,用下面的公式計算寵物每天所需的熱量:

Next, estimate your pet’s daily caloric needs using these formulas:

(1) 休息時能量所需Resting Energy Requirement (RER)

30(weight in kg) + 70 = ______ kcal

(2) 代謝能量所需Metabolic Energy Requirement (MER)

RER x Multiplier (see chart below) = ______ kcal

這可以提供This will give you your:

每日攝取熱量目標Target daily caloric intake: __________

(這只是預估的平均值. 實際的熱量需求依年齡,活動力,天氣及其它因素不同.)

(This is an estimated average only. Actual caloric needs vary with age, activity level, weather, and other factors.)

有了這個數值,以及食物與點心裡所含的熱量,你可以算出應該餵食多少食物.

With this in hand, along with calorie information for the food and treats you feed your pet, you can calculate how much food to feed.

舉例Example:

毛毛重15(6.8公斤).他的身體情況分數約6.5, 他的理想體重是12.

Fluffy weighs 15 pounds (6.8 kg). His body condition score is around 6-1/2, and his ideal weight is 12 pounds.

毛毛的休息時能量所需Fluffy’s Resting Energy Requirement (RER)

30(6.8) + 70 = _274_ kcal

毛毛的代謝能量所需Fluffy’s Metabolic Energy Requirement (MER)

RER x Multiplier (0.8) = __219__ kcal

毛毛每天應攝取的目標熱量Fluffy’s target daily caloric intake: 219 kcal

以罐罐來說,每天約1~3個罐罐. 乾乾的話,每天約1~1/3. 這就是為什麼看食物的熱量這麼重要!

In canned food terms, this is between 1 and 3 cans per day.

For dry food, this may be anywhere from 1 cup per day to only 1/3 cup per day!

This is why knowing the caloric content of the food is so important!

我看過很多的貓奴都是餵家裡肥貓滿滿的一杯乾乾. 不管是哪個牌子,這個量都太多了,因為乾乾含有很高的熱量, 易胖的碳水化合物及缺乏的水分. 不管是貓咪或狗狗,高蛋白,低碳水化合物濕食(罐罐,自製,生食,鮮食或泡開的冷凍乾燥食品)是健康體重的關鍵,當然也是健康長壽的秘訣!

Many’s the obese cat I’ve seen whose guardians were feeding a whole cup of dry food per day. This way too much of most dry foods, which are highly concentrated calorie sources, full of fattening carbohydrates and not enough moisture. Cat or dog, high protein, low carb wet food (canned, homemade, raw, fresh, or reconstituted freeze-dried) is the key to healthy weight–which is, of course, the key to health and longevity!

貓咪生命階級

FELINE LIFESTAGE

x RER

 

狗狗生命階級

CANINE LIFESTAGE

x RER

結紮成貓Neutered Adult

1.2

 

結紮成犬Neutered Adult

1.6

未節育成貓Intact Adult

1.4

 

未節育成犬Intact Adult

1.8

活潑成貓Active Adult

1.6

 

有點活潑成犬Somewhat Active Adult

2

     

中度活潑成犬Moderately Active Adult

3

     

非常活潑成犬Highly Active Adult

4-8

易胖Obese Prone

1.0

 

易胖Obese Prone

1.4

減重Weight Loss

0.8

 

減重Weight Loss

1.0

特殊照護Critical Care

1.0

 

特殊照護Critical Care

1.0

增重Weight Gain

1.2 – 1.4

 

增重Weight Gain

1.2 – 1.4

懷孕Gestation

1.6 – 2.0

 

懷孕Gestation (0-42 days)

1.8

哺乳期Lactation

2-6

 

哺乳期Lactation

4-8

成長期Growth

1.2-1.4

 

成長期Growth (0-4 months)

3

剛結紮Post-neuter (4-12 mos old.)

< by 25%

 

成長期Growth (4 months – neuter)

2

 

 

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