Feeding raw to cats FAQ: "Should I be worried about bacteria and parasites?"
Cat Nutrition 寫於 2012年10月24日8:23 ·
原文在此(Original article here)
The ownership and copyright of this article belongs to the original writer and this is just a translated version, only for sharing.
是的, 一點點, 所以要採取明智的預防措施. 首先,記得貓咪並不像人類一樣對生肉如此敏感. 食物在貓咪的腸胃中移動很快速--大約12小時,人類則是35至55小時—這個短時間讓細菌來不及在腸內大量生長. 別忘記: 貓咪是大自然所設計出來該吃生肉的嚴格肉食性動物。
Yes, a little, so take sensible precautions. First of all, remember that cats are not humans and are not nearly as susceptible to the problems from eating raw meat that affect humans. A cat has a very fast gut transit time -- about 12 hours compared to 35 to 55 hours in humans -- which gives very little time for bacteria to multiply in the intestines. Don't forget: a cat is an obligate carnivorethat was built by Mother Nature to eat raw meat.
沒有一種食物是沒有風險的. 你要決定長期來說,餵食生肉所產生可能的風險是否遠比給與商業貓食來的小. 這是你應該要做的抉擇.
That said, no food you feed your cat is without risk. You'll have to decide if the potential risks from feeding raw food outweigh the long term risks to your animal's well being from feeding commercial food. It's your decision.
當你自製鮮食時,你可以更好的控制貓咪食物的品質與所有的成份. 可以完全掌有控制權. 可能的話, 試著購買放牧飼養的肉, 因為細菌和可能的寄生蟲含量都會比較少.
You have a good deal more control of what is going into your cat and the quality of each individual ingredient when you prepare your cat's food yourself. Exercise that control responsibly. When possible, try to procure meats from free-range sources as the bacterial counts and the possibility for parasite contamination are considerably lower in meats from animals raised in better conditions.
Don't leave the raw food sitting out for hours at a time. Offer your cat her food and after 30 minutes, dispose of anything that is left behind.
處理貓咪要吃的生肉就像處理要給自己或家人吃的一樣小心. 將所有會碰觸到生肉的表面清理乾淨, 在準備食物過後記得洗手. 不要讓小孩接近貓咪的生食.
Take the same precautions handling raw meat for your cats as you would for yourself and your family. Clean all surfaces that touched raw food thoroughly. Wash your hands after preparing or serving the meals to your cats. Don't let small children have access to your cat's raw food.
在清理完貓砂後要徹底清潔雙手. 而且記得, 不只是吃生食的貓咪會經由糞便傳染沙門氏菌. 我從來沒看過有任何的資料顯示吃生食的貓咪會比吃罐頭或乾糧的貓咪,糞便中會有較多的沙門氏菌. 沙門氏菌倒是很常在商業寵食中被發現.
還有,2002年的八月, 美國獸醫協會期刊發表了一篇文章指出很多的健康貓狗都會帶有沙門氏菌, 但這並不表示他們有任何疾病. 那篇文章中指出健康狗狗被驗出糞便中有沙門氏菌的患病率為1至36%,貓咪則是1至18%.
Wash your hands thoroughly after cleaning the litter box. And remember, it's not just cats that eat raw food who can pass Salmonella through their feces. That said, I have never seen any data to suggest that cats on raw food have more Salmonella in their feces than cats on canned or dry food. Salmonellae has been found in commercial pet food too. Moreover, in August 2002, the Journal of the American Veterinary Association published an article noting that a good number of healthy dogs and cats carry Salmonella, but this does not necessarily equate to any clinical disease. That article noted that the "prevalence of isolation of Salmonella from feces of healthy dogs is reported to be between one and 36 percent, and from healthy cats between one and 18 percent."
And please: don't eat any of the raw cat food yourself.
美國動物醫院協會(AAHA)期刊在2003年11-12月發表了一篇關於兩隻吃生食的貓咪與沙門氏菌的文章. 如果你有仔細讀那篇文章, 你會發現這兩隻貓咪其實是不健康的, 就我的解讀來說, 他們很明顯的並沒有被很好的照顧. 其中一隻是未節育(!?!)的14歲公貓,有著糾結的毛髮, 黏膜固有層(在表皮細胞下層的結締組織)淋巴漿細胞浸潤,輕微肺炎及舌頭潰爛. 這隻貓咪曾經有過體重減輕,軟便及厭食症. 另外一隻貓咪是剛接受疫苗注射的幼貓, 患有嚴重肺炎及大量鼻腔分泌物, 還有雙側角膜混濁的情形. 這隻幼貓的肺受傷嚴重. 最後, 這篇文章指出這兩隻貓咪都源自同一個多貓家庭, 而這些動物的免疫系統情形可能會因為這樣的環境壓力下被改變.較老的那隻貓咪也有敗血波式桿菌感染. “承受著許多免疫方面及心理方面的壓力,還必須同時對抗肺部的疾病”
The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) published an article in its November-December 2003 issue on Salmonella in two cats fed a raw-meat diet. If you read the article closely, you'll see that both cats were unhealthy and, from my reading, were apparently not terribly well cared for. One was an unneutered (!?!) 14 year-old male with matted hair, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates within the lamina propria (the connective tissue located just under the epithelial cells), mild pneumonia, and an ulcerated tongue. This cat had a history of weight loss, soft stools, and anorexia. Another was a recently vaccinated kitten with severe pneumonia, a severe nasal discharge, and bilateral corneal opacity. The kitten's lungs were mottled. Finally, the article notes that both cats originated in the same multiple-cat household and the affected animals may have had an altered immune status or environmental stress. The older cat also had a Bordetella infection "incurring additional immunological and physiological stress with compromise to local pulmonary defense mechanisms."
我們不知道的是: 文章中用來餵貓咪的牛肉不知道是從哪裡來的; 不知道那是人可食用的(或是讓我很擔心的低品質, 預先包裝的”生骨肉食餐”); 工作人員是如何準備那些牛肉; 工作人員是否有注意不要讓生肉放在室溫下好幾個小時,甚至好幾天. 文章中有提到一位獸醫告訴客戶說不要再餵食生牛肉為主的食品給貓咪. 如果我是那個獸醫, 我一定會建議一樣的事情. 餵食這些食物很明顯的是完全錯誤.
What we don't know is: where the beef used to feed these cats came from; whether it was beef that was intended for human consumption (or one of those lower-quality, pre-packaged "BARF diets" that make me very nervous); how the caregiver prepared and served the beef; and whether the caregiver was careful about not letting the raw meat sit out for hours or even days on end. The article notes that the referring veterinarian told the client to discontinue feeding a raw beef-based diet to her cats. If I were the veterinarian, I'd certainly recommend the same thing. Something is clearly terribly wrong with the food being served in that household.
所以, 我們應該多麼注意這個很有趣的文章所提到的? 如果兩隻健康且有被妥善照顧的貓咪—被給予適當且安全的生肉均衡飲食, 且是由人可食用等級的來源所製成—會被沙門氏菌所侵害且死亡, 那我們一定要非常的注意. 但是, 如果仔細的去閱讀這篇文章所說, 這些貓咪不但不健康也沒有被妥善照顧. 而且我們不知道這些肉的來源. 理所當然的, 因為我們沒有辦法回答這些關鍵的問題, 這些不幸的事件不該使得所有的生食都應該被怪罪. 我很失望的說, 這篇文章已經被廣為誤用—有一個獸醫網站甚至提出這是一個被廣泛證實的”研究”.
So, how concerned should we be about what this very interesting article says? If two healthy and otherwise well-cared for cats -- that we knew were served a properly and safely prepared balanced diet consisting of fresh meat from a reputable source intended for human consumption -- were stricken down by Salmonella and died, then indeed we should be extremely concerned. However, a careful reading of the article suggests that the cats were neither healthy nor well-cared for. Nor do we know whether the meat came from a reputable source. Consequently, because we don't have answers to such key questions, these unfortunate incidents do not constitute a blanket indictment of all raw diets. I'm disappointed to report that this article has already been badly misused and misrepresented for just that purpose--with one veterinary site even implying it was a broad-based "study" of the issue of raw food and Salmonella in cats.
我強烈建議要仔細的閱讀那篇AAHA的文章—而且非常建議你不要聽別人的轉述. 不要逃避貓食中的細菌與寄生蟲問題. 要了解這個問題, 尊重它並妥善挑選要用來餵食的肉源.
I urge a close reading of the AAHA article -- and very strongly suggest that you don't rely on second- or third-hand interpretations of what it says. Don't run away from the issue of parasites and bacteria in cat food. Understand the issue, respect it, and make informed choices on the meats you select and how you serve the food.
這篇文章中也提出健康成貓”對於沙門氏菌的抵抗力較高” 也提到在某個研究中”實驗性的將健康貓咪感染需要遠比一般感染所需要的菌數還要多” 講的白話一點就是, 這表示沙門氏菌毒素對貓咪的致死性較低.
That same article notes that healthy adult cats "appear to have high immunological resistance to the development of clinical salmonellosis." In one study, the article notes, "experimental infection of healthy cats required inoculation of infectious organisms in numbers far exceeding those likely encountered in natural infection." Translated into less scientific language, this means that it's very difficult for cats to succumb to Salmonella poisoning.
最後, 記住美國疾病管制中心曾報導1973-1984年間在人類中因食物被沙門氏菌感染, 被汙染的牛肉為最大宗(19%). 接下來是火雞(9%), 豬肉(7%)及禽肉(5%). 另一個疾病管制中心在2004年12月所發表的的研究中也提到健康的家貓的排泄物不會影響環境中的沙門氏菌
Finally, remember that the US Centers for Disease Control reports that in human cases of food-borne salmonellosis between 1973 and 1984, contaminated beef accounted for the majority of cases at 19 percent. Behind that was turkey (nine percent), pork (seven percent), and poultry (five percent). Another CDC study published in December 2004 concluded that healthy house cats are generally safe with regard to excretion of Salmonella in the environment.
我要再說一次: 如果你要餵食自製生食, 你必須正確的來做. 不能偷吃步,使用人都不吃的便宜肉源. 不要把生食放在室溫下好幾個小時或好幾天.
I'll say it again: If you're going to feed a raw, home-prepared diet, you must do it correctly. No cheating and using cheap sources of meat unfit for human consumption. Don't even think about using the raw meat that is routinely fed at greyhound race tracks (which is taken from rendering plants and thus has already been deemed unfit for human consumption). No leaving raw food out for hours or days at a time.
And never forget that there is risk with anything you feed. Respect those risks and take steps to minimize them.
- 如果你沒有要買高品質的新鮮肉且正確安全的處理與給與食物, 請你就買優質的罐罐. 不要讓你的貓咪處在不必要的風險之下. 但是也不要欺騙你自己以為罐頭與乾糧都是完全安全的.
- If you're not going to source good quality fresh meats and prepare and serve the food correctly and safely, then please just buy a quality canned food quality canned food and serve that. Don't put your cat at unnecessary risk feeding by a raw diet incorrectly. But also don't fool yourself into believing that canned and dry foods are entirely safe either.
- 如果你認為長期來說餵食商業食品的風險遠高於餵生食, 那幫你自己與貓咪一個忙, 妥善的處理並給予這些食物.
- If you decide that the long-term risks to your cat's health from feeding commercial foods outweigh the risks of raw feeding, then do yourself and your cat a favor and prepare and serve the food properly.
乾糧中的細菌數量可能非常的高,且其含有的黃麴毒素是一直存在的. 舉例來說, 在2005年的12月, 許多美國的新聞媒體都報導了國內最大的寵物食品製造商在22個州回收其產品, 因為有報導指出這些食品造成死亡及疾病. 至少17隻狗狗因為這些被汙染的食品而死亡, 這些食品內被發現有大量的毒物殘存, 這是由生長在穀物(包含玉米)上的黴菌所產生, 叫做黃麴毒素. 這並不是第一次寵物食品中黃麴毒素的新聞, 也不是第一次造成伴侶動物的死亡, 但是這是最近發生且非常顯著的例子, 讓大家知道乾糧並不是安全且滅菌完成的.
The bacterial count on dry food can be very high and the danger of toxic levels of aflatoxin contaminating dry cat food is always present. In December 2005, for example, various US news media outlets reported that one of the nation's largest pet food producers recalled products in 22 states after receiving reports that the food caused death and illness. At least 17 dogs died from the contaminated food, which was found to contain an overgrowth of a toxic substance produced by fungus that grows on grains (including corn) called aflatoxin. This was not the first time that aflatoxin poisoning in pet food made the news and companion animals died as a result, but it is the most recent and vivid example of the folly of believing that dry food is somehow safe and 'sterile.
- 我只能猜想在那些汙染寵食案例中, 我們所沒有聽到的真相, 或是那些生病貓狗是怎樣被那些食物所影響, 因為沒有人去連想到是飲食所造成的. 在2005年事件的10年前,另外一個大公司也被強迫回收幾千噸的狗食, 因為狗狗在吃了這些食品後食欲不振並嘔吐不止, 此次造成25隻狗狗死亡.
- I can only guess at the the cases of contaminated pet food that we do not hear about, or about the cats and dogs that fall ill from the food they're eating but which no one thinks to link to diet. A decade before the 2005 story broke about the deaths from aflatoxin poisoning, another big company was forced to pull thousands of tons of dog food off the shelf after consumers complained that their dogs were vomiting and losing their appetite. At least 25 dogs died.
許多乾糧的寵物食品都會添加很重很油的香料, 這促成非常適合細菌與黴菌生長的環境. 且這些食物的袋子通常都是保存在室溫中好幾周或好幾個月. 我有一個獸醫朋友最近發現一個很好笑的事情是很多的獸醫不假思索就會警告客戶餵生肉的風險(這保存在冷凍庫中), 但卻沒想過這些可能被汙染的袋裝乾糧所造成的真正危險, 這跟致命的細菌大量生長很有關係.
Many dry pet foods are drenched in fatty flavor enhancers that provide an extremely hospitable environment for the growth of bacteria and fungus. And those bags of food are generally stored at room temperature and go unconsumed for weeks or months. As one vet friend recently observed, it's almost laughable at how quick many vets are to warn clients about the risk of feeding fresh meats that are stored in freezers but don't think twice about selling bags of potentially contaminated dry food with no admonition about the real dangers associated with deadly bacterial overgrowth on those products.
這對我來說並不容易, 因為很多的獸醫及寵物食品公司會恐嚇客戶及消費者餵食生食的危險, 掩蓋乾糧可能(快速或慢性)的致命危機, 讓人們盲目的長期餵乾穀片給肉食性動物吃. 這些錯誤的訊息一直不斷的被寵物食品公司重複廣告, 使用他們的網站, 不了解的獸醫及獸醫院內的獸醫技術人員去讓人們以為這才是對的. 但是這些不斷被重複的謊言並不會讓它們變成真實. 很快的, 迷思及錯誤訊息都會變成法則, 許多本來可能考慮給予較健康食物的人們就會被嚇到,且不會試圖去挖掘真正的真相.
It's difficult for me to not get very discouraged by all the effort and energy that many vets and pet food companies put into scaring off clients and consumers from feeding a raw diet, essentially whitewashing real evidence that dry food can kill (sometimes quickly, sometimes slowly) and turning a collective blind eye to the long-term dangers of feeding dry cereals to carnivores. The misinformation and strawman arguments used by advocates of feeding dry food is repeated so often on pet food industry websites and from under-informed vets and veterinary technicians and receptionists in vet clinics that many people take it as truth. But repeating lies over and over doesn't make them true. Soon, myths and a deliberate twisting of the truth comes to dominate the lexicon, and many people who might otherwise consider feeding a healthier diet to their cats are scared off, without the opportunity to weigh the hard facts and evidence first.
我本來對於大腸桿菌,沙門氏菌..其它的細菌感到害怕. 當時, 我才正開始研究生食的問題, 而我發現一個非常極端的事情, 並無法幫助我做任何決定: 有”生食派”, 這些人對於你問到寄生蟲與沙門氏菌的問題食感到非常不耐煩. 他們的防禦性非常高, 且不喜歡任何人提到這個問題. 另外一個極端則是獸醫們與寵物食品工業, 他們警告生食所會產生的許多風險.
I certainly had trepidations about feeding raw meat to my cats. I was terrified of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, you name it. At that time, I had only begun researching the issues related to feeding raw, and I found a very discouraging polarization that was unhelpful in making decisions: there were the "raw folks" who seemed annoyed if you even asked questions about parasites and Salmonella. They seemed overly defensive and annoyed at anyone even raising the issue. At the other end of the spectrum were the selected individuals in the veterinary community and the pet food industry with their grave warnings about all the risks associated with raw feeding.
請讓我大聲說: 我知道現在很多的貓咪都很容易有細菌感染, 慢性(及昂貴)的泌尿道疾病, 皮膚過敏, 嘔吐, 腹瀉, 雞傳染性法式囊病及其他許多疾病. 有許多的動物都有很弱的免疫系統. 我想到的是我們就是產生這些弱病貓的幫兇. 我們過度給與疫苗, 盲目的跟隨獸醫所指示的營養建議, 而這些獸醫並沒有完全了解從不適合的來源取得營養的問題, 我們穩定的給這些肉食性動物吃以毒物, 防腐劑裝飾的肉口味穀片, 且馬上用藥物來抑制所有產生的症狀, 像是prednisolone. 但如果我們可以找到一個方式來降低不管是什麼造成免疫系統低落的原因, 那貓咪就可以會有更好的狀態來面對所有的壞東西. 以我的預算, 沒有任何東西比給貓咪天然的-生肉,骨及內臟更重要. 再次強調, 給予營養均衡的生食並不是所有問題的解答. 但是的確它可以解決很多的問題.
Permit me a soapbox moment here: I know so very many cats these days are susceptible to infections, chronic (and expensive) urinary tract woes, skin allergies, vomiting, diarrhea, IBD, and so on. There are so many animals with very weak or compromised immune systems. What I've come around to in my own thinking is that we help to create weak cats. We over vaccinate them, we blindly follow nutritional advice from vets who are not necessarily well informed on nutrition from unbiased sources, we feed steady diets to carnivores of meat-flavored cereal laced with toxic preservatives, and we jump to immediately suppress all symptoms with drugs like prednisolone when they're sick. But if we can find a way to minimize whatever has the potential to weaken the immune system, then it stands to reason that cats will be in better shape to fight off the bad stuff thrown at them. For my money, nothing beats feeding a cat the diet that nature intended for them to eat--raw meat, bones, and organs. To be sure, feeding a balanced raw diet is not the answer to everything. However, I think you get an awful lot of bang for your buck feeding this way.
Diet, after all, really is the brick and mortar of health.
我發現有一群餵生食的人對於寄生蟲與細菌的問題不屑一顧. 他們的防衛心很重且不正確的就這樣直接忽略潛在的問題. 因為他們聽膩人們對於生肉的看法—奇怪, 危險, 一時的風潮. 餵食貓咪均衡的生肉餐並不是一時興起. 這是常識.
I came to learn that raw feeders as a group are not, in fact, dismissive of or cavalier about the issues of parasites and bacteria. Much of the defensiveness I encountered early on -- and incorrectly presumed was a result of people simply ignoring a potential problem -- was was borne of their frustration with individuals writing off all raw feeding as some wacky, dangerous, and fringe-element fad. Feeding cats a balanced raw diet is not a fad. It's common sense.
多年來餵食生肉, 我發現有很多的好處. 我從來沒有聽過有任何的動物或是人類因為妥善的餵食優良肉源生肉餐給貓咪而生病. 我並不是說這個還沒發生. 我只會擔心那些給貓咪適當且妥善處理的生肉餐的人會多快發現其中的好處, 而那些因為錯誤訊息而想到一堆理由擯棄餵食生肉餐的人是真的沒有好好的思考過.
For what it's worth, in all the years I've been doing this, I'm struck that I've yet to hear of anyone having an animal or a human become ill from properly feeding raw from good meat sources to cats. I'm not saying it hasn't happened somewhere. I do, however, worry about the cats who could benefit SO quickly and easily from being fed a properly prepared raw-meat based diet but who won't ever get the chance because someone who is misinformed dismisses raw feeding out of hand for reasons that are not well thought out.
Make your decision on whether to feed raw based on sound science and informed reason. Not on fear.