By Jean Hofve, DVM
原文在此(Original article here)
The ownership and copyright of this article belongs to the original writer and this is just a translated version, only for sharing.
有一些公司和網站在倡導貓咪吃素食(不吃肉和魚)或甚至完全素食主義(完全不吃動物產品). 這些產品會吸引那些因為道德因素而吃素的人, 而也想將這些思想套到貓咪身上.
There are several companies and websites that promote vegetarian (no meat or fish) or even vegan (no animal products at all) diets for cats. These products appeal to people who have chosen a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle for ethical reasons, and want to apply the same principles to their cats.
身為一個貓獸醫, 我當然不建議讓你的貓咪吃素, 但如果你心意已決, 我有一些建議給你.
As a feline veterinarian, I absolutely do not recommend trying to turn your cat into a vegetarian or vegan, but if you are determined to do so, here is my best guidance for you.
最常用的產品有Wysong Vegan, Vege-Cat和Evolution. 第四種目前還沒上市,不過我想應該會是Humane Society of the United States的Humane Choice. 之後我們會再觀察看看.
The three most commonly used products are: Wysong Vegan, Vege-Cat, and Evolution. A fourth entry, not yet available, may eventually be Humane Choice by the Humane Society of the United States. We will look at them all in turn.
Wysong Vegan很明確的指出這只是用做配合肉食(罐罐或鮮食)的補充品. 產品本身的營養並不完全. 它的網站及包裝上都有明確的寫出來,但是不幸的是很多人並沒有仔細的閱讀標示. 請注意就算它的名字是這樣,它並不是個素食貓食!
Wysong Vegan clearly states that it is a supplement to be used with meat(either fresh or canned). It is not complete by itself. The website and packaging clearly state this, but unfortunately a lot of people don’t read the label very carefully. Please be aware that despite the name, this is not a vegan cat food!
Vege-Cat是一種你可以加到其他食物理的補充品, 可以和乾乾混食. 因為很多的素食貓咪對泌尿道疾病的發病率越來越高, VegeCat的產品內含有尿路酸化劑(蛋胺酸),可以幫助預防泌尿道問題; 他們也有製作非混食的補充品, 可以加強效用. James Pedan和HOANA(Harbingers of a New Age)是最一開始提倡素食寵物產品的人. 他們的產品是經過深思熟慮及長時間測試過的. "Vegetarian Cats and Dogs"這本書會讓你大開眼界.
Vege-Cat comes in a supplement that you can add to other foods, and in a kibble mix that you make at home. Because of the increased risk of urinary tract disease in vegetarian and vegan cats, Vegecat products contain a urinary acidifier (methionine) to help prevent urinary tract problems; and they also produce a separate supplement that amplifies this effect. James Peden and HOANA (Harbingers of a New Age) were the original pioneers of vegan pet products. Their products are thoughtfully produced and time-tested. The book “Vegetarian Cats and Dogs” is an eye-opener.
Evolution製作貓狗的素食罐罐及乾乾. 他們以不使用任何屠宰場廢物為傲, 他們會用玉米麩粉及大豆粉. 大豆對很多貓咪來說是很難消化的, 而且大豆含有很高的植物雌激素, 這個蛋白質來源對貓咪來說是個問題. 玉米麩粉含有約60%的蛋白質, 但也同時含有很多的碳水化合物. 玉米的血糖指數很高, 也是一個造成貓咪糖尿病的重要因素.
Evolution makes canned and dry vegan foods for dogs and cats. While they take pride in the fact that they don’t use any slaughterhouse waste, they do use corn gluten meal and soybean meal. Many cats have difficulty digesting soy, which along with soy’s naturally high phytoestrogen content, makes this protein source inherently problematic for cats. Corn gluten meal contains about 60% protein, but also a large proportion of carbohydrates. Corn has a high glycemic index and is a key factor in the development of feline diabetes.
Evolution操作的是道德的灰色地帶. Evolution的老闆違法轉載與散佈一個非營利性動保團體的文章. 這個非營利性動保團體的要求了很多次,希望那個老闆能停止這樣的行為, 但都被忽略, 直到他們採取法律行動. 直到今天, 他們的網站仍在無科學證據下聲稱自己的產品可以延長寵物的生命.
Evolution operates in an ethical gray area. Evolution’s owner illegally reproduced and distributed copyrighted literature belonging to a non-profit animal rights organization. Numerous requests (and later, demands) from the non-profit organization to stop using its materials were ignored until legal action was imminent. Even today, their website makes outrageous claims about extending pets’ lifespans that have no scientific basis in fact.
Humane Choice是一個新的有機素食寵物食品公司, 由HSUS所經營, 這是一個很大的非營利性動物保護團體. 目前只有銷售一種狗乾糧. 在他們的發表會上是說食品"系列", 所以未來可能會有更多的產品, HSUS目前表示他們並不會推出貓食.
Humane Choice is a new line of organic, vegan pet foods to be marketed by HSUS, a large, non-profit animal advocacy group. Currently, only a dry dog food is available. Though use of the term “line” in its press release implies that there will be more than one product, HSUS currently states that they have no plans to introduce a cat food.
貓與非肉飲食Cats and Non-Meat Diets
貓咪, 理所當然的, 他們被大自然設計為嚴格的肉食性動物. 貓咪的身體有很多進化適應, 所以他們所需的食物大部分為蛋白質,脂肪及水分. 當貓咪被馴化後, 他們必須開始適應以穀物為主的商業貓食, 可以從很多的科學研究中清楚發現以碳水化合物為主的飲食並沒有辦法讓貓咪達到最佳狀態.
Cats, of course, were designed by nature to be exclusively carnivorous. The cat’s body has many specific evolutionary adaptations to its expected diet of prey consisting mostly of protein, fat and moisture. While cats have managed, in general, to adapt to grain-based commercial foods, it is clear from many scientific studies that carbohydrate-based diets are in no way optimal for the feline.
貓咪很需要牛磺酸及花生四烯酸, 而這些只有在動物性產品中才有, 除了有一種海帶, 它含有花生四烯酸. 牛磺酸可以由化學合成( 雖然這個合成過程會對環境造成影響, 且所有美國所使用的牛磺酸都是由中國進口). 這些添加物可以用來讓一個食物在化學層面上是營養完整的. 但是, 牛磺酸與花生四烯酸的天然來源含有很多其他的胺基酸, 酵素, 共同因子及其他複雜的營養, 而這些可能對貓咪的整體健康也是很重要的. 科學告訴我們全部由食物中所萃取出來的營養, 在大多數的時候, 遠比化學合成的版本還要健康. 例如, 壞血酸是維他命C中的一個有效成分, 但是天然的維他命C也含有很多其它的成分, 像是芸香素, 生物類黃酮及其他共同因子.
Cats have an absolute requirement for the nutrients taurine and arachadonic acid that are found naturally only in animal products, with one exception: a type of seaweed that contains arachadonate. Taurine can be chemically synthesized (although the process is so environmentally harsh that all synthetic taurine used in the U.S. is imported from China). These additives can be used to make a diet that is chemically complete. However, natural sources of taurine and arachadonic acid contain many other amino acids, enzymes, co-factors, and other complex nutrients that may also be important for the cat’s overall health. Science has shown us that whole-food derived nutrients are, in almost all cases, far superior and healthy than synthetic versions. For instance, ascorbic acid is the active ingredient in Vitamin C. However, natural Vitamin C contains many other components, including rutin, bioflavonoids, and other co-factors.
這些飲食都依賴化學分析已達到他們的飲食標準. 他們按照AAFCO在1990年所建議的貓咪營養資料去製作. 但是, 這些標準已經不合時宜, 而且有可能會依National Research Council的報告而修改貓狗所需的營養. 寵物營養專家也同意, 餵食測試遠比符合營養資料還要好. 許多的寵物食品只是要求達到這些資料的標準, 而也被證明如果長期餵食可能會有危險.
These diets all rely on chemical analysis to assess their nutritional adequacy. They follow the feline Nutrient Profiles established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) in 1990. However, these standards are out of date and will most likely be substantially revised based on the forthcoming National Research Council report on canine and feline nutritional requirements. Pet nutrition experts also agree that feeding tests are far superior to the Nutrient Profiles for assessing nutritional adequacy. Many pet foods that met these Profiles have proven to be dangerously inadequate when fed long term.
吃肉的貓咪天然會有較酸的尿液; 蔬果與穀物會導致尿液變鹼. 當食物製造商們故意忽略這個問題時, 只有Vegan Cats的網站上有寫出這個危險. 他們建議要常常測試貓咪的尿液酸鹼值以確定酸鹼值在正常的範圍內(應低於6.5)
Cats consuming meat have a naturally low urinary pH; vegetables and grains cause the urine pH to be alkaline. While the food producers skim over this problem, the website Vegan Cats is at least honest about the risk. They recommend frequent testing of the cat’s urine pH to make sure it is remaining in the normal range (6.5 or less).
High carbohydrate diets (which vegetarian and vegan foods are by definition) are also considered to be the primary risk factor for feline diabetes.
科學並不夠了解貓咪的營養需求, 以確定貓咪長期吃素的安全性. 有許多的傳聞說吃素的貓咪一樣健康, 這段路程需要飼主的承諾願意讓貓咪的飲食有些彈性.
The truth is that science just doesn’t know enough about the cat’s nutritional needs to ensure the long-term safety of vegetarian and vegan diets for cats. While there are many anecdotal tales of cats thriving on vegetarian and vegan foods, it is a path that requires great commitment and a willingness to be flexible on the part of the guardian.
道德困境The ethical dilemma
身為一個吃素超過20年的素食主義者, 及兩年的全職動物權利活動者, 我了解那些讓人們避免吃動物產品的道德因素. 那些密集飼養與屠宰牛,豬,雞,火雞及魚的工廠毫無疑問的是個醜陋的工業, 而且造成很多動物的痛苦.
As a 20+ year vegetarian/vegan, and having worked as a full-time animal rights activist for two years, I understand the ethical reasons that lead people to avoid consuming many or all animal products. There’s no doubt that the intensive “factory” raising and slaughtering of cows, pigs, chickens, turkeys and fish is truly a hideous industry that causes a great deal of animal suffering.
如果你正在考慮吃素,但不是全素, 蛋乳素的飲食會比較有彈性, 因為可以吃乳製品和蛋做為蛋白質來源. 但是你應該要知道, 那些動物所受的苦難中動物被飼養長大以做為食物其實比乳牛或蛋雞還要好, 因為乳牛和蛋雞活得比較久, 也比較痛苦, 因為被當作生產工具, 而且最後還是得被送進屠宰場, 因為他們已經累到不值得繼續留下.
If you are considering a vegetarian rather than vegan diet, a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet has more flexibility by allowing dairy products and eggs as protein sources. However, you should know that in terms of suffering, animals raised to be food themselves are actually much better off than dairy cattle and egg-laying chickens, who live far longer and surely crueler lives as production machines, and still face death at the slaughterhouse when they are too worn out to be worth keeping.
道德困境就是當我們和寵物們分享生活, 而他們是天然的肉食性動物, 像是狗, 貓, 貂及爬蟲類動物. 狗是進化後最彈性的動物. 狗的營養需求和我們非常相似, 所以讓他們接受我們的生活型態是比較容易的.
The ethical dilemma comes home when we share our lives with pets who are by nature carnivorous, such as dogs, cats, ferrets, and reptiles. Of these, dogs are the most evolutionarily flexible. Dogs’ nutritional requirements are quite similar to ours, so it is not at all difficult to include them in our animal-friendly lifestyle.
There is also the moral question of whether we should slaughter one animal (chicken or cow) to feed another animal (cat or dog). As one veterinarian asked, “Can we justify using parts of many other severely deprived and prematurely killed nonhuman animals to maintain each individual cat’s well-being?”
如果以獸醫的觀點來看, 給貓吃素食讓我感到緊張. 我曾看過很多病得很嚴重的貓咪就是因為這種飲食. 這些飲食的結果是糖尿病, 泌尿道疾病, 腎臟疾病, 過敏, 氣喘, 發炎性腸躁症, 肝臟疾病...等.
Speaking strictly from a veterinary viewpoint, vegetarian and vegan diets for cats make me nervous. I have seen some very sick cats as a result of these diets. The consequences of a such diets can reasonably be expected to include diabetes, urinary tract disease, kidney disease, allergies, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, and more.
以我個人來說, 我相信當我們自願認養貓咪進入我們的家庭時, 我們就應該要尊重貓咪的精神, 且遵循他們的天性餵食. 但是所有人都需要捫心自問這個問題.
Personally, I believe that when we voluntarily adopt cats into our homes, we are ethically obligated to honor the feline spirit and feed it according to its basic nature. But everyone needs to answer that question from their own heart.
*更新: 最近(2011,12月)有一個傳聞說Ellen DeGeneres (Halo寵物食品公司的共同老板)正在打算製造貓素食. 這個傳聞已經被打破.
*Update: A rumor recently (December 2011) went around that Ellen DeGeneres, co-owner of Halo for Pets, is planning to make a vegan cat food. This rumor has been debunked.