十個原因告訴你為什麼不要餵乾乾

10 Reasons Why Dry Food Is Bad for Cats & Dogs

March 25, 2012
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原文在此(Original article here) 

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身為一個具有超過18年經驗與超過數千小時研究並提倡天然及整體健康的獸醫, 我曾下過這個結論--乾糧並不是一個適合我們的貓狗(食肉動物)的食物,他們需要以肉為主的飲食。 我常常想要讓飼主停止餵食乾糧。 但這是一個很難讓大眾接受的想法。 乾糧的方便性及相對低的價格就是主要的反對因素,這可是很強大的敵人。

As a holistic veterinarian and animal advocate with more than 18 years of experience and thousands of hours of research under my belt, I’ve concluded that dry food is not a fit diet for our cats and dogs–carnivores who need a meat-based diet. I constantly try to make the case against feeding dry food. But it’s really a hard concept to get across to people. Against me are the convenience and relatively low cost of dry food; and those are powerful opponents.

在這篇文章中, 我會告訴你10個為什麼乾糧對寵物們如此的不好... 而且希望這能夠說服那些希望寵物們能有最好的健康及長久的生命的人, 而乾糧並不能達到。

In this article, I’ll present 10 reasons why dry food is so very bad for pets…and hopefully convince people who want optimal health and long life for their beloved cats and dogs that dry food isn’t going to get them there.

1. 原料 Ingredients

乾糧主要的原料為乾燥的粉狀物, 像是雞肉粉,家禽副產品粉還有肉及骨粉. 這些動物性原料被放入一個很大的磨碎機裡以減少大型塊狀物。 產出的大雜燴就在很高的溫度下煮沸好幾個小時, 甚至好幾天, 讓所有的東西都變成粥狀. 脂肪會浮在上面, 然後被刮下來用做其他用途。 剩下的部份就乾燥成低水分, 高蛋白的粉末以用在乾糧中。

Dry food is typically made from rendered ingredients, such as chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM). Rendering starts with animal-source ingredients being fed into a massive grinder to reduce them to chunks. The resulting hodgepodge is boiled at high temperatures for hours or even days, turning everything to mush. Fat floats to the top and is skimmed off for other uses. The remainder is dried to a low-moisture, high protein powder suitable for use in dry foods.

有些磨碎的產物不一定是好的。 像是雞肉粉, 相對來說比較純, 因為這通常是交給只處理雞肉的磨碎廠。 另外一方面, 肉骨粉則是最惡劣的生原料。

Some rendered products are better—or worse—than others. Chicken meal, for instance, is likely to be relatively pure, because the rendering plant is usually associated with a slaughterhouse that processes only chickens. On the other end of the spectrum, MBM is the “dumping ground” of the nastiest raw ingredients. 

這些原料可能有:

These may include:

  • 由家畜(牛,羊,豬)或家禽而來的非肉組織, 像是腸子, 肺, 脾臟, 頭, 蹄, 乳房, 未出生的胎兒, 生病或是被寄生的肝臟, 切除的腫瘤及其他人類不吃的東西。
  • Non-meat parts from cattle, sheep, swine, or poultry, such as intestines, lungs, spleens, heads, hooves, udders, unborn fetuses, diseased or parasitized livers, cut-away tumors, and other parts unsuitable for human consumption
  • 廚餘及過期的超市肉品(沒有人會去將這些肉拿出包裝來處理; 那些"法規" 容許最後的產物含有一定比例的塑膠)
  • Restaurant waste and out-of-date supermarket meats (and no, there isn’t a guy standing there taking them out of the packages; the “rules” allow for a certain percentage of plastic in the end product)
  • "屍體"- 在牧場死掉的動物, 有可能已經在太陽下曬了好幾天
  • “Deads” –animals that died on the farm (whose carcasses may have been decomposing in the sun for days)
  • "淘汰動物" 生病或是受傷而無法走進屠宰場的動物
  • “Downers” (animals too sick or injured to walk into the slaughterhouse)

因為這些東西最後都會變成咖啡色的粉狀物, 你不可能知道裡面含有什麼。 但是美國食品藥物管理局發現含有肉骨粉及/或"動物脂肪" (兩者都是粉狀物的原料)的狗食中常含有巴比妥, 這是一種用來安樂動物的藥物。

Because all of this ends up as an amorphous brown powder, it’s impossible to know what went into it. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that dog foods containing MBM and/or “animal fat” (both rendered ingredients) were the most likely to contain pentobarbital, the primary drug used to euthanize animals.

有些乾糧, 像是你常在雜貨店, 打折商店及大型寵物店看到的品牌, 單用肉粉以達到蛋白質需求會成本太高,所以製造商用粉狀副產品及/或植物性蛋白質(如玉米麩粉, 大豆粉及植物蛋白萃取物)替換以讓蛋白質含量達到可接受的範圍。

In some dry foods, such as those found at grocery stores, discount stores, and large pet supply stores, even rendered meat is too costly to make the needed profit, so manufacturers substitute rendered by-product meals and/or vegetable proteins such as corn gluten meal, soybean meal, and plant protein concentrates to get the protein up to acceptable levels.

其它的的原料還有碳水化合物或是澱粉(穀物或是高澱粉植物), 維他命及礦物質混合物與水。 成犬及成貓的飲食不需要碳水化合物; 這些澱粉只是提供熱量。因為這些東西並不是我們的食肉動物們天生該吃的東西, 大部分的熱量就很快的轉成脂肪。 然後那些獸醫們才對為什麼我們有寵物肥胖問題感到疑惑。

Other ingredients of the dough include carbohydrates, or starch (either grains or starchy vegetables), a vitamin-mineral premix, and water. Adult dogs and cats do not need any carbohydrates in their diet; all these starches do is provide calories. Because they aren’t a natural part of our carnivorous pals’ diets, most of those calories are quickly converted to fat. And then veterinarians wonder why we have a “pet obesity epidemic”!

價格並不是可靠的品質識別證, 雖然非常便宜的食物當然是含有非常便宜的原料。製造商必須購買原料, 處理, 裝袋並運送這些食物到銷售商, 還得付薪水給員工及高層。 然後銷售商儲存這些食物, 最後寄送到零售商與賣場。 這些店會收取上架費已保障自己的生意。 然後, 他賣你一磅1.5美金, 這一點錢居然足夠支付這一大段路的所有支出! 在這1.5美金裡面購買原料的成本不會超過30分。 而且如果製造商還用很多的廣告來宣傳, 原料占的成本比例會更低。

Cost isn’t a reliable indicator of quality, although extremely cheap foods are bound to contain extremely cheap ingredients. The manufacturer has to buy ingredients, process them, bag and ship the finished food to a distributor, and at the same time pay for labor and overhead. Then the distributor stores the food and ultimately delivers the food to retail outlets. Those stores charge for shelf space to keep themselves in business. And yet, it sells it for $1.50 a pound, while guaranteeing a profit for everyone along the way! The cost of all the ingredients in a $1.50/pound food can’t be more than 30 cents/pound. And if the manufacturer also promotes the food through advertising, that cost has to be deducted, too.

由一個著名的網路寵物網站對貓乾糧所做的調查發現, 貓乾乾的價格及品質差異很大。 就像我們所預想的, 雜貨店裡常見的貓乾糧每磅不超過2美金, 但是"有機"及許多"無穀"的食物卻是每磅3美金以上。 但是最貴的食物不是無穀,有機或是天然糧; 而是那些大量(且花重本)廣告的牌子。 希爾斯的室內貓就必須要每磅3.96美金, 就算它不含有一滴滴的真正肉品(多為家禽副產品粉, 米及玉米)。 就不用問希爾斯的處方食物了-- 但如果你一定要知道, 他們的"抗敏" z/d 高達每磅6美金以上。

A survey of dry cat food for sale at a popular internet pet site found a huge variation in the price and quality. As expected, generic and grocery-store type dry cat foods were less than $2.00 per pound, while “organic” and many “grain-free” foods were more in the $3.00/lb. range. But the most expensive foods were not grain free, organic, or natural; but rather were those most massively (and expensively) advertised. Science Diet’s Feline Indoor Maintenance rang up at an astonishing $3.96 per pound, despite containing not one single shred of real meat (mainly poultry by-product meal, rice, and corn). Don’t even ask about Hill’s Prescription Diets—but if you just gotta know, their “hypoallergenic” z/d formula is over $6.00/lb.

2. 處理過程Processing

要製作乾糧, 高蛋白粉被混入一個黏黏, 高澱粉的麵糰然後由一個擠壓器壓出,形成乾乾的形狀。 這個麵糰是由一個巨大的螺絲擠壓到一個小小的管子裡, 尾端有模型, 就像蛋糕的奶油擠花器一樣。 擠壓器裡的溫度及壓力都非常的高。 這些麵糰被擠出來之後, 會通過一個旋轉的刀片將麵糰切片, 麵團在到一般壓力的空氣中時就會彈出來, 最後就變成我們一般看到的乾乾形狀。

To make dry food, whatever rendered high-protein meal is being used is mixed into a sticky, starchy dough that can be pressed through an extruder, which forms the kibble. The dough is forced by giant screws through a barrel and ultimately into tiny tubes that end in a shape, much like a cake decorator. The heat and pressure in the extruder are tremendous. As the compressed dough exits into the air, it passes through a whirling mass of sharp knives that cuts the pieces individually as they “pop” when they reach normal air pressure, creating the familiar shapes associated with each pet food brand.

雖然高溫的處理會讓蔬果及穀物更容易消化, 但是蛋白質的吸收是相反的。 煮過的蛋白質比較不容易消化, 而且他們會被熱改變結構。 這些不正常的蛋白質會是食物過敏的原因之一, 因為免疫系統會對這些不認識且不自然的蛋白質產生反應。

While heat processing makes vegetables, fruits, and grains more digestible, it has the opposite effect on proteins. Not only are cooked proteins less digestible, but they can be distorted, or “denatured,” by heating. These abnormal proteins may be a factor in the development of food allergies, as the immune system reacts to these unfamiliar and unnatural shapes.

酵素, 是一種特別的蛋白質, 它會在身體裡產生數千計的化學反應, 它們特別的脆弱, 而且很容易被熱所破壞, 就算是相對低的溫度也一樣。 正常的食物酵素會幫助消化, 而它們會在處理過程中被破壞。 這會迫使胰臟的工作量增加以達到身體所需的酵素量。 在一段時間後, 胰臟會因為這個強大的壓力而變大甚至會有致命的胰腺炎。

Enzymes, special proteins that aid in thousands of chemical reactions in the body, are especially fragile, and are rapidly destroyed by heat, even at relatively low temperatures. The normal food enzymes that would help digest the food are destroyed by processing. This forces the pancreas to make up for those lost enzymes. Over time, the pancreas can become stressed and enlarged, and even get pushed into life-threatening pancreatitis.

3. 碳水化合物Carbohydrates

碳水化合物是一種含有碳(C), 氫(H)及氧(O)的分子--或是可以說成是碳加水(H2O)--"含有水分的碳"。 最簡單的碳水化合物是醣; 而所有的碳水化合物就是醣的不同配置而產生。 纖維是一個很特別的碳水化合物型態, 由植物細胞所製造以保持它們的細胞壁強韌, 讓植物可以從一個很小的基部長得很高大。

Carbohydrates are molecules that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) —carbon and water (H2O) —in other words, “hydrated carbon.” The simplest carbohydrate is sugar; and all carbs are varying configurations of sugars. Fiber is a special type of carbohydrate made by plant cells to keep their cell walls rigid, allowing plants to grow upright from a relatively small base.

狗和貓都是食肉動物, 吃肉的。 他們自然的飲食是高蛋白質及高水分。 例如, 一隻完整的老鼠含有約8%碳水化合物, 大部分存在肝臟。 大自然的獵物(鳥,兔,老鼠等等)含有9-10%的碳水化合物。 有些是由葡萄醣所組成, 身體會將這個能量儲存在肌肉與肝臟中, 有一些來自於獵物體內尚未消化的食物。 食肉動物最理想的飲食是阿特金斯健康飲食法: 大量的蛋白質與脂肪及少量植物源的複雜碳水化合物。

Dogs and cats are carnivores, meat-eaters. Their natural diet is high protein and high moisture. For example, a whole rat contains about 8% carbs, which are found mainly in the liver. Natural prey (birds, rabbits, rodents, etc.) contain from 9-10% carbs. Some of this is consists of glycogen, a fuel the body stores in the muscles and liver, and some comes from undigested food in the prey’s gut. The carnivore’s ideal diet is essentially the Atkins diet: lots of protein and fat, and a small amount of complex carbohydrates from vegetables.

貓乾糧中平均的碳水化合物含量為約30%; 這個範圍由8%的EVO全貓糧(大部分的碳水化合物由44%的蛋白及47%脂肪所替代)到48%的布魯斯。蛋白質是最昂貴的原料, 而碳水化合物是最便宜的, 便宜的食物含有較多的碳水化合物。

The average carb content of dry cat food is about 30% carbohydrates; it ranges from 8% in EVO Cat and Kitten food (most the carbs are replaced by 44% protein and an astronomical 47% fat), to 48% in Blue Buffalo Lite. Protein is the most expensive ingredient, and carbs the least expensive; so in general, cheaper foods contain more carbs.

狗(及人類)可將碳水化合物直接分解為簡單的醣以用作能量來源。 醣不是立即可用的能源, 或是補充肝及肌肉中的葡萄醣, 它們會轉成脂肪。這需要一些生物化學途徑以完成; 但是這個大多數哺乳類動物最主要的途徑(需要葡萄醣激脢)在貓咪中是沒有的。 貓咪天生無法處理碳水化合物。 貓米比較喜歡利用蛋白質及脂肪產能, 而且這些途徑是強制性的。 貓咪處理碳水化合物的能力很弱, 而且他們會自動將碳水化合物轉化成脂肪。

Dogs (and humans) use carbs directly for energy by breaking them down to simple sugars. Sugars not needed for immediate energy, or to replenish glycogen stores in the liver and muscles, are turned into fat. This takes place through several biochemical pathways; but a major pathway used by most mammals (involving the enzyme glucokinase) is essentially absent in the cat. Cats are simply not built to process carbohydrates. Cats preferentially use protein and fat for energy, and these pathways are mandatory. Felines have very limited ability to process carbohydrates, and are “programmed” to turn carbs directly into fat.

另外一個碳水化合物的缺點是它們含有很高的血糖指數; 這表示比起其它的營養它們會更快的提高血糖。 增加的血糖會使一種荷爾蒙-胰島素從胰臟中釋出。 胰島素會幫助細胞吸收這些糖, 這些細胞就可以利用它們當作能量來源。 如果沒有胰島素, 不管細胞有多麼的飢餓, 糖仍然停留在血液當中。

Another disadvantage of carbohydrates is that they have a high glycemic index; this means that they raise blood sugar higher and faster than other nutrients. Increased blood sugar triggers the release of the hormone insulin from the pancreas. Insulin allows sugars to be absorbed into cells, where they can be used for fuel. Without insulin, no matter how fuel-starved cells may be, sugars stay in the bloodstream.

高熱處理會增加碳水化合物的血糖指數。 玉米-一個常見的乾糧原料-和巧克力的血糖指數非常相似。 當乾糧隨口可及, 貓咪會一天吃15-20次。 這會使得身體內的血糖不斷起伏, 而每次都需要胰臟分泌胰島素。 過量分泌胰島素會造成細胞對胰島素較不敏感。 這是為什麼乾糧是一個第二型貓咪糖尿病的主要原因。

Heat processing increases the glycemic index of carbohydrates. Corn—a common ingredient of dry food—has a glycemic index similar to a chocolate bar. When dry food is available all the time, cats in particular will nibble at it 15-20 times a day. This causes multiple sharp swings in blood sugar and requires the pancreas to secrete insulin each time. Over-secretion of insulin causes cells to down-regulate and become resistant to insulin. This is one reason why dry food is a major contributor to feline (Type II) diabetes.

4. 熱量Calories

最近的研究發現美國大約50%的貓狗都過重, 而且其中很多是嚴重肥胖。 過多的體重並不可愛也不好窩--它會縮短寵物的生命, 造成不必要的不適, 而且必然會導致至少一種慢性疾病, 像是糖尿病, 膀胱和腎臟疾病, 關節炎, 肝臟敗壞, 慢性腸胃道問題, 免疫力降低, 甚至癌症。 給他那些不必要的食物並不是對他好, 大部分的肇因都是乾糧。

It’s currently estimated that about 50% of dogs and cats in the U.S. are overweight, and many are seriously obese. Carrying extra weight isn’t cute and cuddly—it will shorten your pet’s life, create unnecessary discomfort, and will surely lead to one or more chronic diseases, such as diabetes, bladder and kidney disease, arthritis, liver failure, chronic gastrointestinal problems, poor immunity, and even cancer. You’re not doing your pet any favors by giving in to those abnormal appetites, which are in most cases caused and perpetuated by dry food.

乾糧是高度濃縮的熱量。 乾糧是那個含有很多熱量的食物, 而非罐頭或是其它的高含水食物。 乾糧是寵物肥胖的主要原因。 肥胖則會造成許多嚴重的疾病, 包含:

Dry food is a highly concentrated source of calories. Dry food, not canned food or any other high-moisture food, is where the calories are. Dry food is the leading cause of obesity in pets. Obesity by itself leads to many serious diseases, including:

  • 糖尿病Diabetes
  • 嘔吐Vomiting
  • 慢性嘔吐Chronic Vomiting
  • 慢性腹瀉Chronic Diarrhea
  • 高血壓High Blood Pressure
  • 皮膚毛髮問題Skin and Coat Problems
  • 脂肪肝 (肝臟敗壞)Hepatic Lipidosis (Liver Failure)
  • 胰腺炎Pancreatitis
  • 關節炎Arthritis
  • 心臟病Heart Disease
  • 氣喘Asthma
  • 過敏性皮膚病Allergic Skin Disease
  • 發炎型腸躁症Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • 膀胱疾病Bladder Disease
  • 腎臟疾病Kidney Disease

5. 脫水Dehydration

這很明顯, 乾糧是乾燥的。 這是貓咪的一大問題, 因為他們的祖先生活在沙漠。 他們遺傳了高效率腎臟給我們的毛小孩們, 他們的腎臟被設計會吸收獵物的每一滴水分。 所以, 貓咪不太會口渴, 而且直到他們達到3%脫水前他們不會主動去喝水--這個脫水程度已經會讓獸醫認為該給予靜脈輸液了。 狗比較會喝水, 所以他們比較不會像貓咪那樣會因為慢性脫水而有不好的影響。

Obviously, dry food is dry. This is a big problem for cats, whose ancestors are desert-dwelling wild cats. They have passed on to our pets their super-efficient kidneys, which are designed to extract every last drop of moisture from prey animals. As a result, cats have a low thirst drive, and don’t drink water until they are about 3% dehydrated—a dehydration level at which veterinarians would consider giving intravenous fluids. Dogs will drink more readily, so they are not as prone to the damaging effects of chronic dehydration.

6. 潛藏的汙染物Potential Contaminants

看看製造商在寵物食品裡放的東西種類, 像是含農藥的穀物與生病的死屍及瀕臨死亡的動物, 不好的事情會發生是不足為奇。 寵物食品裡面用到的原料常常會有很多不同的毒物汙染。有些毒物在處理過程中會被破壞, 但其它的不會。

Given the types of things manufacturers put in pet food, such as pesticide-soaked grains and diseased, dead, and dying animals, it is not surprising that bad things sometimes happen. Ingredients used in pet food are often highly contaminated with a wide variety of toxic substances. Some of these are destroyed by processing, but others are not.

細菌及細菌毒素Bacteria & bacterial toxins. 屠宰的動物, 還有那些因為疾病,受傷或自然死亡的動物都是寵物食品裡肉,副產品以及肉粉的來源。 寵物食品裡常見的粉狀物, 像是雞肉粉, 家禽副產品粉及肉骨粉都是。Slaughtered animals, as well as those that have died because of disease, injury, or natural causes, are sources of meat, by-products, and rendered meals for pet food. Rendered products commonly found in dry pet food include chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, and meat and bone meal.

在牧場裡死亡的動物可能會在好幾天後才被送到磨碎廠。 這些屍體可能是被像沙門氏菌與大腸桿菌高度汙染的, 這些菌來自分解的消化道。 危險的大腸桿菌可能會汙染多於50%的肉粉。

Animals that die on the farm may not be transported to the rendering plant for many days after death. These carcasses can be heavily contaminated with bacteria such as Salmonella and E. Coli released from the decomposing digestive tract. Dangerous E. Coli bacteria are estimated to contaminate more than 50% of meat meals.

磨碎的處理過程中會殺死細菌, 但這不會消除細菌生長時所產生的內毒素。 這些毒素在處理過程中仍是活躍的, 而且會造成疾病。 寵物食品製造商並不會測試食品中是否含有細菌內毒素。

While the rendering process kills bacteria, it does not eliminate the endotoxins some bacteria produce during their growth. These toxins can survive processing, and can cause sickness and disease. Pet food manufacturers do not test their products for bacterial endotoxins.

還有, 像是"動物消化道產物"這種調味料, 會被噴灑在乾糧上面, 這常常含有很多的沙門氏菌, 所以有很多的回收事件及人類疾病發生。

In addition, flavorings such as “animal digest” that are sprayed onto dry food are commonly loaded with Salmonella, as numerous recalls and human illnesses have proven.

藥物 Drugs. 因為生病或死亡的動物常常會被用做製造寵物食品, 那些用來治療或是安樂動物的藥物可能會殘留在最後的產物中。 青黴素及苯巴比妥就是兩個會到處理最後都還存在的藥物。 在畜養牲畜時所使用的抗生素也會造成人類對抗生素的抗性。

Because sick or dead animals are frequently processed for pet foods, the drugs that were used to treat or euthanize them may still be present in the end product. Penicillin and pentobarbital are just two examples of drugs that can pass through processing unchanged. Antibiotics used in livestock production also contribute to antibiotic resistance in humans.

黴菌毒素 Mycotoxins. 由黴菌或真菌所產生的毒素叫黴菌毒素。 現代的農牧方式, 不好的天氣環境及不適當的乾燥與儲存穀物會造成黴菌的生長。 寵物食品原料中最容易被汙染的是穀物, 像是小麥及玉米; 還有魚粉。 有很多的大型寵物食品回收事件都是因為寵物死於乾糧中強大的毒素--黃麴毒素。

Toxins from mold or fungi are called mycotoxins. Modern farming practices, adverse weather conditions, and improper drying and storage of crops can contribute to mold growth. Pet food ingredients that are most likely to be contaminated with mycotoxins are grains such as wheat and corn; and fish meal. There have been many large pet food recalls in response to illness and death in pets due to a very powerful poison, called aflatoxin, in dry food.

化學殘留物Chemical Residues. 農藥及化學肥料都會殘留在植物中。 有很多用在寵物食品的穀物就是含有殘留物無法通過USDA, 不能給人食用的。

Pesticides and fertilizers may leave residue on plant products. Grains that are condemned for human consumption by the USDA due to residue may legally be used in pet food.

基改食物GMOs. 基因改造的植物也是一個該注意的點。 在2009年, 美國91%的大豆, 88%的棉花及85%的玉米都是基改產物。 棉花籽粉,大豆及玉米都是常用來餵牛。 大豆及玉米也常常被用在寵物食品裡面。 最近(2010)的一個研究指出餵食基改的玉米會顯著的造成肝腎敗壞。

Genetically modified plant products are also of concern. As of 2009, 91% of the planted area of soybeans, 88% of cotton, and 85% of corn in the U.S. were genetically modified varieties. Cottonseed meal is a common ingredient of cattle feed, as are soy and corn. Soy and corn are also used directly in many pet foods. A recent (2010) study found significant damage to the liver and kidneys of rats fed genetically modified corn.

丙烯酰胺 Acrylamide. 這個致癌的複合物在含有某些醣及天冬酰胺(一種在馬鈴薯及穀物中大量存在的氨基酸)的食物被約250˚F (約121˚C)的溫度下烹煮時會產生。 它會在一個化學處理過程(褐變反應)中合成。大部分的乾糧中含有穀物或是高澱粉的植物(馬鈴薯), 而且他們會在高溫(高壓擠出時約93~148˚C,烘烤時超過260˚C)下烹煮。 這些環境最適合褐變反應的產生。 事實上, 褐變反應在製造寵物食品時是必須的, 因為它會產生可口的味道, 就算它減少了某些胺基酸, 像是牛磺酸及離胺酸。 寵物食品裡面所含有的丙烯酰胺含量及它的影響仍是未知。

This carcinogenic compound forms at cooking temperatures of about 250˚F in foods containing certain sugars and the amino acid asparagine (found in large amounts in potatoes and cereal grains). It forms during a chemical process called the Maillard reaction. Most dry pet foods contain cereal grains or starchy vegetables such as potatoes, and they are processed at high temperatures (200–300°F at high pressure during extrusion; baked foods are cooked at well over 500°F). These conditions are perfect for the Maillard reaction. In fact, the Maillard reaction is desirable in the production of pet food because it imparts a palatable taste, even though it reduces the bioavailability of some amino acids, including taurine and lysine. The amount and potential effects of acrylamide in pet foods are unknown.

7. 防腐劑Preservatives 

罐頭中不需要防腐劑, 因為裝罐本身就是一個保鮮的處理。 乾糧製造商必須確定乾糧的保存期限夠長(通常是12~18個月), 以保持在這個運輸及儲藏的時間下仍是可食用的, 脂肪及其他合成或"天然"防腐劑都常被用在保存寵物食品。 合成的防腐劑有BHA,BHT, 沒食子酸丙酯, 丙二酯(也被用來做較低毒性的抗凍劑)及乙氧喹啉。 這些抗氧化劑的毒性, 安全性, 反應或長期使用在每天食用的寵物食品中對寵物的影響仍是不明確。 沒食子酸丙酯用來保持半濕潤的食物及嚼錠柔軟及好咬, 在貓食中是被禁用的, 因為它會造成貓咪的貧血, 但在狗食中仍被准許使用。

Preservatives are not needed in canned foods since canning is itself a preserving procedures. Dry food manufacturers need to ensure that dry foods have a long shelf life (typically 12 to 18 months) to remain edible through shipping and storage, fats used in pet foods are preserved with either synthetic or “natural” preservatives. Synthetic preservatives include butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate, propylene glycol (also used as a less-toxic version of automotive antifreeze), and ethoxyquin. For these antioxidants, there is little information documenting their toxicity, safety, interactions, or chronic use in pet foods that may be eaten every day for the life of the animal. Propylene glycol, which keeps semi-moist food and “bits” soft and chewy,  is banned in cat food because it causes anemia in cats, but it is still allowed in dog food.

BHA, BHT及乙氧喹啉都有可能造成癌症, 而它們在寵物食品及某些人類食品中是被允許含有相對低的一個濃度。 在寵物食品中使用這些化學物並沒有被完全的研究, 而且長期的累積這些化合物最終可能是具有傷害性的。乙氧喹啉從來沒有被測試它對貓咪的安全性。 這常常被用在很多有名的獸醫"處方"食品裡。

Potentially cancer-causing agents such as BHA, BHT, and ethoxyquin are permitted at relatively low levels in pet and some human foods. The use of these chemicals in pet foods has not been thoroughly studied, and long term build-up of these agents may ultimately be harmful. Ethoxyquin has never been tested for safety in cats. Despite this, it is commonly used in well-known veterinary “prescription” diets.

8. 肝臟疾病Liver Disease

肝臟是接收從消化道而來的血液的第一個器官。 這是因為肝臟是最主要的解毒器官, 這裡有很多的酵素以攔截及分解許多潛在的毒素。 這裡也有很多的白血球, 可攻擊外來生物。

The liver is first in line to receive all the blood returning from the digestive tract. That’s because the liver is a major detoxifying organ, with enzyme systems in place to intercept and dismantle many potential poisons. Large numbers of white blood cells also reside in the liver, ready to attack invading organisms.

肝臟也是負責製造很多蛋白的器官, 像是白蛋白; 還有膽固醇, 構成重要荷爾蒙的重要分子; 以及膽汁, 對消化及吸收脂肪是必須的。

The liver is also responsible for making many proteins, such as albumin; it makes cholesterol, the base molecule for important hormones; and it produces bile, which is essential for digestion and absorption of fats.

貓的肝臟對飲食改變非常的敏感。 如果貓咪不吃, 肝臟的壓力會很大, 並且開始呼叫"增援"。 以貓咪來說, 這包含了分解身體的脂肪, 肝臟就會從血液中抓取這些脂肪並送至肝臟細胞。 這些囤積的脂肪會嚴重的阻止細胞正常的功能, 最後造成一個會危害生命的肝臟敗壞情形, 叫做"脂肪肝"。過重的貓咪, 大多時候吃乾糧或只吃乾糧的貓咪會有最高的風險。

Cats’ livers are particularly sensitive to dietary changes. If a cat does not eat, the liver gets stressed and starts calling for “reinforcements.” In the cat’s case, this consists of fat breakdown around the body, which the liver then grabs from the blood stream and packs into its cells. This extreme fat hoarding can become so serious that it prevents cells from functioning properly, and a life-threatening type of liver failure, called “hepatic lipidosis” (fatty liver disease) can result. Overweight cats, and cats eating mostly or only dry food, are most at risk.

 

9. 過敏及氣喘Allergies & Asthma

你可能有聽過, 80%的免疫系統都在消化道。 這並不是非常的正確, 但是的確有很多的白血球都在消化道裡。 這很有道理, 因為消化道是身體內會遇到外來物(蟲或是病毒)的第一線器官。

You may have heard that 80% of the immune system is found in the gut. While that isn’t quite  accurate, huge numbers of white blood cells do live in groups (“Peyer’s Patches”) along the intestinal lining. That makes sense, since the gut is one of the primary routes of entry into the body for invading organisms, from viruses to worms.

在上面有稍微提到, 在製造過程中高熱的處理乾糧會改變蛋白質的結構, 這表示他們的形狀會扭曲。 對蛋白質來說, 結構就是一切, 也只有正確結構的蛋白質會有正常的功能。 結構也是免疫系統辨認蛋白質是不是外來物的方法。 病毒, 細菌, 黴菌及其他的入侵者都會因為他們表面的蛋白質而被辨認出來。 當免疫細胞辨認出外來的蛋白質時, 整個免疫反應會開始進行並產生抗體去作用。 抗體會順著血液找到入侵者; 當他們找到的時候, 它們會貼合上去並放出訊號尋求支持。 發炎反應就是其中一個初反應。

As mentioned briefly above, the high-heat processing that dry food undergoes during manufacturing can denature proteins, meaning that it distorts their shape. To a protein, shape is everything, and only a protein in the correct shape will function properly. Shape is also how the immune system identifies proteins that belong in the body (“self”) versus foreign proteins. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other invaders are all identified by the proteins found on their surfaces. When an immune cell identifies a foreign protein, a whole cascade of signaling for reinforcements and production of antibodies is set into motion. Antibodies then scour the bloodstream looking for invaders matching their shape; when they find one, they latch on and signal for support. Inflammation is one of the primary responses.

當一個不正常的蛋白質被免疫細胞發現並產生抗體時, 每次那個蛋白質出現抗體都會貼合上去並啟動發炎反應。 越多的不良蛋白, 越多發炎反應。

When an abnormal protein is picked up by an immune cell and antibodies are produced, then every time that protein appears, antibodies flock to it and stimulate inflammation. More bad proteins, more inflammation.

消化道對這個反應並不良好, 而且會開始抵抗那個食物--嘔吐或是腹瀉。 貓咪特別容易嘔吐, 而且嘔吐是食物過敏及發炎型腸躁症的第一個徵兆。

The gut doesn’t take kindly to this reaction, and will start rejecting the food—one way or another—vomiting or diarrhea. Cats seem to be especially good at (or perhaps fond of) vomiting, and indeed, vomiting is the primary symptom of food allergies, as well as full-blown inflammatory bowel disease.

真正的食物過敏跟飲食不適是不同的--雖然症狀會很類似。 過敏會有免疫系統的參與, 飲食不適則是對於食物中的某個東西反應不良, 像是色素, 質感增加劑或是其它的添加物。 過敏通常是針對蛋白質; 不只是肉的蛋白質還有玉米, 小麥及其他穀類。

A true food allergy is different from a dietary intolerance—though the symptoms may be the same. An allergy involves the immune system, while an intolerance may simply be a reaction to something in the food—one of the colorings, texturizers, or other additives. Allergies are generally to proteins; but there are proteins not only in meat, but also in corn, wheat, and other grains.

食物及飲食不適都常在餵食乾糧時看到。 還好飲食治療都很有效。

Both food allergies and dietary intolerances are more common with dry food. Fortunately, they both respond to dietary therapy.

10.腎臟及膀胱結石 Kidney and Bladder Stones

貓狗都會在膀胱與腎臟產生發炎反應, 結晶及結石。 這些情況在餵食乾糧下會越來越嚴重。

Both dogs and cats can develop inflammation, crystals, and stones in their bladders and kidneys. These conditions are exacerbated, if not outright caused, by dry food.

貓咪會有一個叫做"貓咪下泌尿道症候群"的情況(通常稱做FLUTD, 或是一個比較古老的用詞FUS-貓咪泌尿系統綜合症), 這不是一個單一的疾病。 事實上, 它至少有三個種類:

Cats get a condition called “feline lower urinary tract disorder” (commonly referred to as FLUTD, or sometimes by the older, outdated term, FUS—feline urologic syndrome) is not a single disease. In fact, it comes i at least three distinct varieties:

  • 膀胱炎Cystitis – 這個詞的意思是"膀胱發炎"。 FLUTD中最主要的種類(約三分之二), 這包含了"自發性膀胱炎"(未知原因造成膀胱發炎)。 這個貓咪的症狀和女人的間質性膀胱炎很類似。 很少會有細菌的參與--大部分是"無菌"發炎。This term means “inflammation of the bladder.” The majority of FLUTD cases (about 2/3) fall into the category of “idiopathic cystitis” (bladder inflammation of unknown cause). This syndrome in cats is very similar to interstitial cystitis in women. It is rare for bacteria to be involved—most are “sterile” inflammations.
  • 結晶Crystalluria – 這是膀胱裡面形成礦物質結晶的情況。 結晶在狗裡面有很多的型態, 但在貓裡面只有兩個常見的型態: 鳥糞型結晶體(也稱做鎂銨磷酸鹽)及草酸鈣。 公貓常常會有結晶和發炎膀胱的黏液混合物造成泌尿道阻塞。 這個"阻塞物"會流向尿道, 這裡因為尿道尾端很窄小而被塞住。 This is a condition where mineral crystals form in the bladder. There are many types of crystals in dogs, but only two are common in cats: struvite (also called magnesium-ammonium-phosphate), and calcium oxalate. Male cats who block usually have crystals that are held together in a matrix with mucus from the irritated bladder. This “plug” can slither down the urethra, where it can become stuck where the urethra narrows at its end.
  • 尿路結石Urolithiasis – "lith"是石頭的意思, "uro"是泌尿系統。 只有約20%的泌尿道系統疾病是膀胱結石--兩種結晶在這其中占的比例各半。 它們在尿液濃度很高的時候很容易形成, 因為在這個情況下, 這些會形成結晶的成分很容易遇到彼此並黏接在一起而形成結晶或結石。 鎂銨磷酸鹽結石可以由餵食酸化的處方食品暫時分解(請餵罐頭的形式!), 但是草酸鈣結石則必須由開刀去除。A “lith” is a stone, and of course “uro” means it’s in the urinary system. Only about 20% of FLUTD cases involve bladder stones—about half of these are struvite, and half are calcium oxalate stones. They form most easily when the urine is very concentrated, which maximizes the chances of the components—which are all normally in urine—banging and sticking together into crystals or stones. Struvite stones can be dissolved by temporarily feeding an acidifed veterinary diet (the canned version, please!), but calcium oxalate stones must be removed surgically.

狗也有膀胱炎, 結晶及結石。 但是, 狗比較常看到是因為細菌感染, 這是因為很多的狗必須憋尿好幾個小時, 直到飼主回家。 泌尿道系統是一個天然的防禦系統, 藉由尿液將細菌排出。 當狗狗憋尿時, 細菌就有好幾個小時的時間可以在膀胱裡生長並造成問題。

Dogs also get cystitis, crystals, and stones. However, in dogs, these conditions are more likely to be caused by bacteria, partly because so many dogs must hold their urine for many hours while their guardians are at work or school. The urinary system’s natural defenses include urine flowing through out and washing bacteria along with it. When urine is held, bacteria have many hours to colonize the bladder and start causing havoc.

預防膀胱問題的最好方式是讓很多的液體流經泌尿道系統以沖掉這些問題因子。 乾糧的低水分會造成高度濃縮的尿液, 這很容易產生結晶及結石。 濕食對保持泌尿道健康是必要的; 而且這對所有有膀胱疾病的貓狗來說都是必須的。

The best way to prevent all bladder problems is to keep lots of fluid flowing through the urinary system to flush these problem particles out. The dehydrating quality of dry food produces highly concentrated urine that is much more likely to form crystals and stones. Wet food is needed to keep the urinary tract healthy; and it’s essential in any dog or cat with a history of bladder disease.

該怎麼做What to Do

給你的寵物足夠的水分及蛋白質以保持健康, 試試罐頭, 自製及生食。

To give your pet the moisture and protein content that are so necessary for good health, try canned, homemade, and raw food.

就算罐頭是處理過的, 它只被烹煮過一次, 而且是低溫, 短時間的, 比起乾糧的兩次高溫處理(磨粉一次, 擠壓一次)還好。

Even though canned food is processed, it’s cooked only once, and briefly, at lower heat, rather than twice at high heat for dry food (once when the animal products are rendered, and again during extrusion). Canned food also tends to have a much higher protein content than dry food.

如果你能遵照一個均衡的食譜,自製食物比較理想。 [注意: 大部分網路上的"食譜"都是不均衡的, 而且可能造成嚴重的傷害] 當你要做自己毛小孩的食物時, 你可以百分之百控制裡面的原料品質, 而且你可以依他們的需求添加補充物, 比市售寵物食品的單一配方還好。

Homemade food is ideal, if you are following a balanced recipe. [Warning: most "cookbooks" and recipes on the internet are NOT balanced, and can cause serious harm over time.] When you make your pet’s food, you are 100% in control of the quality of the ingredients, and you can add additional supplements depending on your pet’s individual needs, rather than getting a “one size fits all” commercial pet food.

生肉為主的食物可以在家自製, 或是購買冷凍或冷凍乾燥的。 就算只是在任何的市售食品中添加一點點的生肉也是一大進步。 但是, 生肉一定會有細菌汙染, 甚至是寄生蟲或其他害蟲。 貓狗對沙門氏菌,曲狀桿菌及其他常見的肉類污染物都有抵抗力; 而且害蟲的卵及囊在-20度下冷凍可以被殺死。

Raw meat based diets can be made at home, or purchased frozen or freeze-dried. Even just adding a little raw meat to any commercial diet will be an improvement. However, raw meat is always contaminated with bacteria, and may even harbor worms and other parasites. Dogs and cats are quite resistant to Salmonella, Campylobacter, and other common meat contaminants; and parasite eggs and cysts can be rendered harmless by freezing at -4oF for three days before using.

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