貓的基本營養需求

Your Cat's Nutritional Needs: The Basics

原文在此(Original article here)

The ownership and copyright of this article belongs to the original writer and this is just a translated version, only for sharing.

**本文直接翻譯自原文,非本人立場發言** 

**歡迎分享及引用,但務必註明出處**

這篇文章將討論貓咪的基本營養需求.臨床上對於許多營養已被分別地做過研究,事實上,他們大多是單獨的研究這些營養成分,而非由營養的來源-食物下去做探討.這是很悲哀的,因為健康的基石並非一個個的營養成分組成.完整的食物含有不同營養的組合物以提供最佳的健康來源.這聽起來有點複雜,但如果你使用符合生物天性的食物作為健康的基石,這一點都不複雜!當你給貓咪準備妥當的食物,這裡面就含有許多對於貓咪建商很重要的營養.這其中也包含了將分離的天然營養素混和再加入罐頭或乾糧的那些寵物食品.寵物食品製造商將這些分離的成分混和製造成符合營養需求的食品比天然的食物要複雜多了!
This article discusses the basic nutritional needs of your cat. Many nutrients have been studied individually in a clinical setting — in fact, they're examined more individually than in the food they came from. This is unfortunate because it's important to remember that the essential building blocks of health aren't isolated in nature. Whole foods contain a complex blend of synergistic compounds that work together to support optimal well-being. While that may sound complicated, it really isn't — if you simply use species-appropriate real food as the foundation for health. One of the great things about feeding our cats a well-prepared diet of real food is that it's chock-full of all the nutrients we know are important to feline health. Plus, we're also including natural nutrients that have yet to be isolated, synthesized, and added to the cans and bags of processed pet food. It's more complicated for pet-food manufacturers who formulate products with isolated ingredients to make an appropriate substance that mimics real food in supporting a lifetime of great health.
 
舉之前的牛磺酸事件為例.寵物食品製造商以前不認為牛磺酸這個胺基酸是貓咪的必需胺基酸,直到貓咪開始出現症狀甚至死亡才發現.後來他們才將分離的牛磺酸加入大部分的貓食當中.但如果你想給貓咪"真"食物,好消息是,我們下面第一個討論到的食物就包含了超棒的天然牛磺酸!
Take the taurine disaster, for example. Taurine is an amino acid that pet-food manufacturers didn't consider essential until cats began to suffer and die from eating processed products deficient in it, Now it's an isolated chemical added to most cat foods, but if you're considering feeding your cat real food, I have great news: The first food group we'll discuss is a fantastic source of natural taurine!
 
蛋白質Protein.
食物中的蛋白質可提供必需胺基酸,這些胺基酸是製造抗體,酵素,賀爾蒙,組織及維持酸鹼平衡的必需品.其提供貓咪能量去成長及發育.完全蛋白質包含了充足的必需胺基酸,在許多的食物中都有,像是肉,魚,蛋,及家禽.不完全蛋白質無法提供所有的必需胺基酸,像是豆類,穀類及蔬菜中都是.這些植物性蛋白質不能提供貓咪所需的必需胺基酸(像是牛磺酸),這些必需胺基酸來自於動物性蛋白質.
Dietary protein supplies essential amino acids and is needed for the manufacture of antibodies, enzymes, hormones, and tissues and for proper pH balance. It provides energy for cats and is essential for growth and development. Complete proteins contain ample amounts of essential amino acids and are found in foods such as meat, fish, eggs, and poultry. Incomplete proteins do not provide all essential amino acids and are found in many foods, including legumes, grains, and vegetables. These plant proteins don't supply the essential amino acids that a cat needs (such as taurine), which come from animal protein.
 
貓咪須從動物身上得到這種營養,因為從植物獲得的胺基酸不能被貓咪吸收利用.貓咪每天需要多少這些胺基酸可因不同的因素而有差異,像是生理狀態,年紀,活動力及他們對於食物的消化能力.總的來說,貓咪對於蛋白質的要求非常高.
Cats need animal sources of this nutrient, as the amino acids from vegetable sources aren't well utilized. How much each animal may need can vary slightly due to a variety of factors, including physiological state, age, activity, and the digestibility of the protein source being fed. Overall, cats have a very high requirement for protein.
 
脂肪Fat.
 
這個能量濃縮物提供了必需脂肪酸及幫助營養被利用與傳輸.他也參與維持細胞的完整性及代謝調節.飽和脂肪酸可在許多動物性的來源中找到,而植物大多提供不飽和脂肪酸.
This concentrated source of energy also provides essential fatty acids and aids in nutrient utilization and transportation. It's involved in cell integrity and metabolic regulation as well. Saturated fat is found primarily in animal sources, while polyunsaturated fat comes mostly from plants.
 
脂肪及油脂由脂肪酸所組成,有時候會被稱為"維生素F".下列為對貓咪健康最重要的脂肪酸: omega-3脂肪酸(包含alpha-亞麻酸,二十碳五烯酸及十二碳六烯酸);以及omega-6脂肪酸(包含亞油酸,gamma-亞麻酸,花生四烯酸及共軛亞油酸).
Fats (and oils) are composed of fatty acids, sometimes referred to as "vitamin F." The following are the fatty acids most involved in feline health: omega-3 fatty acids, which include alpha-linolenic acid,eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid; and omega-6 fatty acids, including linoleic acid,gamma-linolenic acidarachidonic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid.
 
亞油酸和花生四烯酸長久以來都被認為是貓咪的必須胺基酸.最近,DHA也被認為是重要的一員,因為DHA對於貓咪的視覺,生殖系統健康以及免疫系統很重要. EPA也可能很重要.
Linoleic and arachidonic acids have long been considered to be essential fatty acids for cats. More recently, DHAhas been added due to its important contribution to feline vision, reproductive health, and the immune system. EPA may also be of benefit.
 
必須脂肪酸跟他的名字一樣,對貓咪的健康是必須的,而且他們必須由食物中得到.不像有些動物,貓咪無法有效地轉換植物性必需胺基酸成貓咪所需的衍生物.舉例來說,貓咪必須吃肉以獲得花生四烯酸.還有,貓咪無法像有些動物可將亞油酸轉換成gamma-亞麻酸,研究指出gamma-亞麻酸對於貓咪的皮毛健康是非常重要的.在大自然中,貓咪會吃那些已經將這些脂肪酸轉換完成的獵物,由此獲得這些有用的脂肪酸.貓咪也可以從草食性的動物中得到omega-3以及共軛亞油酸.
Essential fatty acids are just what they sound like — essential for the cat's health — and they must be obtained from food sources. Unlike some animals, felines don't efficiently convert plant sources of EFAs to the needed derivatives. For example, cats must eat meat to obtain arachidonic acid. Also, they don't convert LA toGLA (as some animals do), and studies show that GLA can benefit the health of feline skin and coat. We can theorize that in nature, the cat would eat another animal whose body had already made the conversion, thereby offering some of this useful fatty acid. The cat would also consume omega-3s andCLA when eating its natural herbivorous prey.
 
總而言之,亞油酸,花生四烯酸,DHA(在大自然中常跟其他有用的omega-3一起被發現),EPA及gamma-亞麻酸被認為是對於貓咪健康非常重要的脂肪酸.共軛亞油酸漸漸被認為在貓咪的健康中扮演重要角色,因為其在許多貓咪的獵物中被發現,但這最近才開始研究
To sum up, LA; AA; DHA (which is mostly found in nature with other useful omega-3s); and to a lesser extent, EPA and GLA, can be considered important fatty acids for good feline health. CLA may become recognized as a bigger player in feline nutrition in the future because it's found in the meat and fat of a cat's natural diet, but it has only recently been "discovered" by nutritional science.
 
礦物質Minerals.
 
這些大多參與貓咪的生理反應.他們可幫助酵素形成,維持酸鹼平衡及氧氣被運送與儲存到骨頭及肌肉組織中.不同來源的礦物質的生物利用度都不同.元素礦物質大部分來自於泥土或水;螯合礦物質則是結合在有機質上,使他們更容易被身體吸收.
These are essential to the cat and are involved in almost all physiological reactions. They contribute to enzyme formation, pH balance, nutrient utilization, and oxygen transportation and are stored in bone and muscle tissue. Biological availability may vary widely depending on the source of the nutrient. Elemental minerals are generally taken from the earth or water; chelated minerals are those that are bound with other organic substances, often making them easier for the body to absorb.
 
礦物質包含鈣,氯,鉻,鈷,銅,氟,碘,鐵,鎂,錳,鉬,磷,鉀,硒,矽,鈉,硫和鋅.還有一些貓咪只需微量濃度的礦物質.礦物質就像維生素,他們會一起合作反應.
Minerals include calcium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorous, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc. There are others that cats require at trace concentrations. Minerals, like vitamins, work synergistically, with a cooperative action between them.
 
維生素Vitamins.
 
這些營養對於代謝調節以及正常的生長和功能是必須的.通常在食物中都有,有些則是由動物自行合成.他們可分為脂溶性及水溶性.
These nutrients are essential for metabolism regulation and normal growth and function. Usually found in food, some are synthesized within the animal's body. They're classified as either fat or water soluble.
 
脂溶性維生素包含A,D,E,K.水溶性維生素包含C及B群.一般來說,脂溶性維生素會儲存於身體當中,而水溶性維生素容易被排出.身為肉食性動物的貓咪,比起植物性來源的營養比較能夠利用動物性來源的.舉例來說,貓咪不能像有些動物一樣將beta胡蘿蔔素轉換成維生素A,所以他們必須從其他動物得到不須轉換的維生素A.
Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. The water-soluble group includes C and the B complex. Generally, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body, while water-soluble ones pass through more quickly. Once again, the carnivorous cat utilizes animal sources of nutrients more readily than plant sources. For example, felines can't convert beta-carotene from plants into vitamin A (as some animals do), so they need preformed vitamin A from an animal source. This type needs no conversion.
 
水分Water.
 
因為貓咪的天性是從食物中獲得水分,他們本來就比較不會有口渴的感覺.如果他們是吃乾糧或是乾燥的零食,這會造成健康的問題.其中一個問題是他們會因為吃乾糧而脫水,而身體的機制並不會告訴他們必須要去喝更多水,進而造成尿液濃度上升.雖然健康的貓咪並不會喝很多水,你仍須隨時備有乾淨的水給他們.而且,一定要確定水質,這表示水龍頭的水是不行的,尤其如果你住的地方會在水裡面加入氟化物. 如果你有水塔,最好每年都檢查有無汙染物.
Because cats are designed to fulfill most of their water requirements by eating fresh raw food, they naturally have a low thirst drive. This can lead to health issues when they eat dry food products and treats. One of the problems is that even though they become dehydrated eating the kibble, their natural "programming" may not encourage them to drink more, and their urine can become too concentrated. Even though a healthy cat doesn't drink much, you should always have clean drinking water available. And please make sure it's good quality, which means that just turning on the faucet may be out, especially if your community puts fluoride in the water supply. If you have a well, get it tested annually for contaminants.
 
還有還有! But Wait…There's More!
 
還有其他很多的物質都對於健康很重要,有些來自於食物有些則是身體可以合成.包括抗氧化物-包含維生素,礦物質及酵素-這會保護身體不被自由基攻擊.我知道"自由基"聽起來很像恐怖分子,但他們其實是會破壞細胞的原子.嗯...我想你也可以把它當作某種身體裡的恐怖份子啦!自由基會因為暴露在香菸,汙染,輻射及其他不好物質中而形成.我們的貓咪比起以前,被這些環境毒素轟炸的次數更多,抗氧化素對於他們的健康就更為重要了.
There are a number of other substances that contribute to good health, some of which come from food sources and some of which are created within the body. These include antioxidants — comprising vitamins, minerals, and enzymes — which help protect the body from damaging free radicals. Now, I know that "free radicals" sound like a terrorist group, but they're actually cell-damaging atoms. Hmm…I guess you could consider them a form of body terrorist! Free radicals may be formed internally by exposure to cigarette smoke, pollution, radiation, and other damaging substances. With our cats being bombarded with more environmental toxins than ever before, antioxidants are important factors for good health.
 
酵素是一種蛋白分子,對於很多身體功能都很重要.他們參與了能量,組織,器官以及細胞修護...等功能.酵素對於消化也是必需的.不同動物所需要的酵素種類與多寡都不同.不意外的,生物會吃的食物可被他們身體內的酵素所分解,而他們身體中則沒有他們在大自然中不會吃的食物所需的酵素.
Enzymes are protein molecules that are essential for most bodily functions. They're involved in energy, tissue, organ and cellular repair and much more. They're also essential for digestion, and different species of animals need different levels for particular types of food. Not surprisingly, creatures have the enzymes needed to properly break down the foods found in their natural diets and tend to be deficient in those that work on substances they wouldn't eat in the wild.
 
酵素是在身體內合成,也可以在食物中發現,雖然這些酵素在高於攝氏47度下就會被破壞.這些成分可以幫助補充身體內對於酵素的需求
In addition to being manufactured by the body, enzymes can also be found in food, although temperatures of 118 degrees (F) or above destroy them. Those in raw ingredients help prevent depletion of the body's internal supply of enzymes.
 
有很多的營養還沒被發現,但是這就是為什麼餵食鮮食這麼棒,這些還沒被發現但是好重要的物質在裡面都有!
There are probably many more nutrients yet to be discovered, but that's the great thing about feeding fresh food — those undiscovered, yet important, substances are already in there!
 
貓咪不需要的營養What's Not Nutritionally Required
 
 
你可能已經發現碳水化合物(通常由寵物食品中的穀類提供) 並沒有被列在貓咪的必需營養內.連NRC都指出:貓咪的飲食中不需要碳水化合物.說真的,如果你考慮到貓咪的生理情況以及這個物種幾千年來所吃的食物,碳水化合物不應該出現在貓咪的飲食中是非常合理的.
You may have noticed that carbohydrates (usually supplied by grains in pet food) weren't listed among the necessary nutrients for cats. Even the National Research Council's Subcommittee on Cat Nutrition states that "…no known dietary carbohydrate requirement exists for the cat…" And really, if you consider feline physiology and what the species has been eating for thousands of years, it makes perfect sense that grains shouldn't be part of the cat's diet.
 
另外一個不要餵穀類的理由是,穀類會在身體內分解為糖-貓咪絕對不需要這東西!很多的研究都指出攝取糖類會造成疾病,包含癌症.吃高碳水化合物的飲食對貓咪的身體來說是種虐待.碳水化合物常被認為是富含能量的食物,但是貓咪對於蛋白質與脂肪的高效利用就可以滿足他們對於能量的需求.這也是為什麼貓咪對於高品質的蛋白質要求這麼高.
Another good reason not to feed grain is the fact that it breaks down into sugar within the body — something a cat definitely doesn't need! Many studies link sugar consumption to illness, including cancer.¹ Eating a high-carb diet really wreaks havoc on a cat's body. Carbs are usually thought of as energy foods, but felines utilize protein and fat very efficiently for those needs. This is one reason why cats have such a high requirement for quality protein.
 
好的營養會通力合作Good Nutrition is a Team Effort
 
我上面所提到的那些物質在大自然中並不會單獨行動,食物不可能只含有單一種營養.舉例來說,大家應該都有聽過柳橙是很好的維生素C來源,但是那個食物中含有很多其他的輔助型營養,會幫助吸收與利用維生素C.就算農夫可以創造只含有維生素C的"科學怪橙",沒有其他的"小幫手",維生素C便沒辦法好好表現.
All the components we discussed don't work alone in nature; foods don't contain single nutrients. For example, we've probably all heard that oranges are a good source of vitamin C, but that piece of fruit contains many other cofactor nutrients that actually aid in the absorption and utilization of the vitamin. Even if farmers created a "Franken-orange" that contained only that vitamin, it wouldn't be as effective without the other "helpers," such as bioflavonoids and minerals that aid in vitamin C's effectiveness.
 
維生素E也一樣,他並不是你在店裡面看到的膠囊一樣只有d-alpha生育酚.維生素E其實是一個至少含有八種不同分子的大家族,他們在一起合作時(像是鮮食內的維生素E)的效果比較好.很多的研究也指出從食物中獲取的天然營養比起人工合成的營養補充物還好.順道一提,柳橙對貓咪來說並不是合適的維生素C來源,但生肝是.
Likewise, vitamin E isn't simply the d-alphatocopherol that you'll find in a capsule from the store. It's actually a family of at least eight different molecules that work better when taken together, the way they're found in fresh food, rather than alone in supplemental form. Many studies have shown that natural nutrients from food are more beneficial than isolated synthetic supplements.² And by the way, oranges aren't a species-appropriate source of vitamin C for cats, but raw liver is.
 
非食物的必需物Nonfood Requirements
 
除了好的飲食外貓咪還有其他的需求.沒錯,食物是健康的基石,但還有其他的因素對於貓咪的身心健康更重要.像是乾淨方便使用的貓砂盆,他們專屬的小地方,當然,還有你.
Your cat has other needs in addition to a good diet. Yes, food is the foundation of health, but there are other factors that can have a big impact on your feline friend's well-being. Of course it needs a clean, accessible litter box and a safe place to call its own, but your cat also needs you.
 
就算貓咪被認為是非常獨立的生物,你的愛以及關注對他們來說是很重要的.請跟他們說話,玩耍,依他們喜歡的方式撫摸他們.我保證如果你把他們當作你生命中很重要的一部份,而且用愛與尊重照顧他們,你所得到的將會多於你可想像的.
Even though cats are perceived as very independent creatures, they really do benefit from your love and attention. Please talk to, play with, and touch your cats in ways they enjoy. I promise that if you make them an important part of your life and treat them with love and respect, you'll all benefit immeasurably.
 
Kymythy R. Schultze has been a trailblazer in the field of animal nutrition for nearly two decades. She's a Clinical Nutritionist, a Certified Nutritional Consultant and one of the world's leading experts on nutrition and care for cats. Visit her at Kymythy.com"Your Cat's Nutritional Needs: The Basics" is chapter 3 of Kymythy's book Natural Nutrition for Cats, The Path to Purr-fect Health, and is posted here with her kind permission.
 
  1. "Dietary Glycemic Load and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women's Health Study," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 96, no. 3, 2004.
  2. "Vitamin E," Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, December 2009.
Read more at http://feline-nutrition.org/nutrition/your-cats-nutritional-needs-the-basics 
Follow us on Twitter: @FelineNutrition
創作者介紹

Meow Emperor

Meow Emperor 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()