AAFCO和NRC是什麼?

Answers: Who Are AAFCO and the NRC?

 

 

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Written by Lyn Thomson, BVSc DipHom

Saturday, February 16, 2013 03:38 PM

 

 在很多的貓食產品上都可以看到關於AAFCO的標示.我也看過很多是寫符合NRC標準,這兩個組織到底是在做甚麼以及他們的標準有何不同呢?

I see lots of references to the AAFCO nutrient requirements on cat food products. I also have seen nutritional requirements put out by the NRC and they seem to be different. What is the role of these two organizations and why are their recommendations different?
 
很多寵物食品的標籤上都會提到美國飼料管理協會(AAFCO),這被認為是寵物食品上最重要的標示,但是我們應該要注意的是,這是業界的標準,而非科學標準.美國國家研究院(NRC)的建議標準長久以來都被用做營養標準的基本值.NRC依據科學證據提供專業的建議.
Most pet food labels mention the Association of American Feed Control Officials, or AAFCO, nutritional adequacy statement. It is considered to be one of the most important aspects of a dog or cat food label, but it is worth remembering that it is an industry standard and not a scientific standard. The recommendations of the National Research Council, or NRC, were historically used as the basis for nutritional adequacy. The NRC provides expert advice based on sound scientific evidence.
 
然而,AAFCO依據實用性修改了NRC的營養標準,換句話說,AAFCO相信寵物食品工業厲害到可以變更NRC科學家們列出的營養標準.
However, the industry watch dog AAFCO have modified the NRC nutrient profiles for the purpose of practicality.¹ In other words, AAFCO believes that an organisation with close ties to the pet food manufacturing industry is sufficiently qualified to alter the nutrient profiles created by the NRC scientists.
 
AAFCO許可寵物食品製造商只要有通過AAFCO的餵食試驗或是標準就可以標示他們的產品是100%營養均衡充足.AAFCO的餵食試驗需時六個月且需至少試驗於八隻動物上,其中必須至少六隻動物通過試驗.很多營養學家都指出,六個月的試驗並不表示長期來說營養就是均衡充足的.在那些"100%營養充足均衡的食物"中有對肉食性動物來說高含量的碳水化合物,這便證明了,符合業界標準並不代表符合科學上的標準.
AAFCO permits a pet food manufacturer to claim that its product is 100% complete and balanced if it has complied with AAFCO's feeding trial protocols or nutrient profiles.² AAFCO's feeding trials last six months and are conducted on a minimum of eight animals, six of whom must complete the trial. As many nutritionists would point out, sustainability for six months does not translate into complete and balanced for a lifetime of nutrition. The high levels of carbohydrate in "100% complete and balanced" diets for carnivores, is proof that these claims may meet an industry standard, but not a scientific standard.
 

接下來是簡短的介紹貓狗營養標準的發展史.NRC以及AAFCO是影響家貓家犬餵食的兩個劇最大影響力的組織.

The following is a brief history of the challenges in defining nutrient profiles for cats and dogs. The National Research Council of the United States National Academy of Science and the Association of American Feed Control Officials are the two most influential bodies when it comes to feeding domestic cats and dogs.

從1940年代起,NRC就已發表許多關於貓狗營養需求的報告,這些都是由有效的文獻及研究而得到的結果.這些報告會經由新的研究而不斷更新.NRC是獨立的組織,沒有接受任何直接的贊助來做這些研究.
Since the 1940s, the NRC has released reports on the nutrient requirements of cats and dogs, based on available literature and research. The reports have been updated as new research has come to light. The NRC receives no direct funding for the reports, and is dependent on sponsorship to fund them.³
 
AAFCO是於1909年成立,用以建立關於飼料工業的規範.雖然他不是政府組織,但他是依據美國聯邦的法律以及指示來運作,包括美國食品及藥物管理局(FDA)以及美國農業局(USDA)的管理.
AAFCO was formed in 1909 to establish a framework for uniform regulation of the feed industry. Although not a government agency, it operates within the guidelines of federal and state legislation, including laws administered by the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and the United States Department of Agriculture, the USDA.
 
雖然NRC把陪伴動物當作最終的受惠者,寵物食品工業才是這些研究報告的使用者.如何維持高標準以及客觀性,則是NRC以及寵物食品製造工業之間的拉鋸戰.
While companion animals are the ultimate beneficiary of the NRC guidelines, the pet food industry is the key user of the reports. There is currently a very legitimate and real concern about how to maintain the high standard and objectivity of the NRC guidelines in the face of the potential tensions of the pet food manufacturing industry.
 
NRC的標準認為這些營養是否適合以及消化易度是不可折扣的.不幸的是,這在商業寵物食品上,由於原物料的自然本質,這是達不到的.結果就是,寵物食品製造商認為NRC的標準不適用於寵物食品工業的製造環境.為了解決這個問題,在1990年代早期,AAFCO建議了貓犬營養專家小組委員會.這個委員會包括了寵物食品製造工業以及學術界的代表,由FDA的代表人員主持.他們提供了這個工業以及這個工業的監管機關一個媒介,將NRC標準轉為更適用於寵物食品工業的標準.這些標準讓製造商更好做事.AAFCO有留下部分NRC的建議,但是絕對不是全部.這些標準在1990年代後就再也沒有修訂過.
The NRC guidelines assume that availability and digestibility of nutrients is uncompromised. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the raw materials used in the commercial production of pet food, this assumption does not hold true. As a result, pet food manufacturers concluded that the NRC recommendations could not be used in a manufacturing environment.To resolve this, in the early 1990s, AAFCO formed the Canine and Feline Nutrition Expert Subcommittees. These subcommittees comprised representatives from the pet food industry and academia, and were chaired by a representative of the FDA. They provided industry, and industry regulators, with a vehicle for translating the NRC recommendations into a set of practical guidelines which better suited the pet food industry. These guidelines made life easier for the manufacturer. AAFCO has accepted some of the NRC's recommendations, but certainly not all. These guidelines have not been reviewed since the 1990s.
 
2006年時,NRC發表了對於貓犬的營養建議.2006年的檔案依據先前的標準做了顯著的改善,但是讓寵物食品製造更加昂貴,嚴重地影響了這份檔案的推廣.很明顯的AAFCO並不打算採用最新的營養研究.
In 2006 the NRC published an update of recommendations for cats and dogs. The 2006 document represents a substantial improvement from previous guidelines but has become an expensive document to produce, severely limiting its outreach. It would certainly appear that AAFCO have not taken note of the most recent nutritional research.
 
總而言之,AAFCO提供部分的基本營養標準,這些標準主要都是為了迎合寵物食品製造商用低品質的原料而寫成.這些都是最低的營養需求,並不是對寵物來說最好的.AAFCO知道NRC的標準,但不想沿用他們.AAFCO中的一些博士以及獸醫表示"雖然AAFCO的標準很爛,讓飼主有這種虛幻的安全感.但沒有任何研究指出這個標準有何不足"
To summarise, AAFCO provides some basic nutritional guidelines, a rough framework to build upon. The guidelines are very much concerned with the practicalities of making pet food from a vast array of low quality ingredients. They are minimum requirements, not optimal requirements. AAFCO acknowledge the NRC guidelines, but do not uphold them. In the words of Quinton Rogers, DVM, PhD, one of the AAFCO panel experts:
 
"Although the AAFCO profiles are better than nothing, they provide false securities. I don't know of any studies showing their adequacies or inadequacies."
 
依據目前知道的營養科學,最好是將AAFCO的標準當作基準點.這些標準是依據貓狗的最低營養需求而建立的.對寵物食品工業來說,符合最低標準是很重要的.但是,提供寵物們最佳的營養對他們的健康來說才是最好的.
Based on available nutritional science, it is best to take the AAFCO profiles as a starting point. These profiles are well-established minimal nutritional requirements for cats and dogs. Meeting a minimum requirement is important for the pet food industry. However, optimising our pets' nutrition is essential for improving their health and wellbeing.
 

看食物並不是只有看他的營養標示,重要的是也要看這個食物對這個物種適不適合.很多文獻中都有提到野生肉食性動物的飲食習慣,所以很容易可以知道對這些肉食性動物的營養需求.適應天性的食物需達到營養的最低標準,以最少的烹調後餵食,以符合寵物的行為需求及豐富他們的生活.

I feel it is important to recognise food as not only having a nutrient profile, but also as having a form and function appropriate to the species being fed. The literature contains numerous references to the food habits of feral carnivores and therefore the appropriate nutrient profile is readily available. It is important to meet a minimum nutrient profile using bio-appropriate food, minimally processed and fed in a physical form that meets a pet's behavioural needs and enriches their lives.

Note: The Feline Nutrition Education Society provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. The Feline Nutrition Education Society disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.
 
If you have a question you'd like answered, please send them to answers@feline-nutrition.org. We respond to every question. If your question would be helpful to others, we may post it in Answers, too.

 

 

 

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