什麼是"嚴格的食肉動物"

Answers: What Exactly is an "Obligate Carnivore?"

Written by Margaret Gates   

Saturday, February 09, 2013 02:23 PM

原文在此(Original article here)

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**本文直接翻譯自原文,非本人立場發言** 

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我的貓Tedder吃生食而且我觀察到他的健康以及活力都有很大的改善。當我研究應該餵他吃什麼的時候,我一直看到人家說貓是"嚴格的肉食性動物"。到底嚴格的肉食性動物是什麼以及他和一般的肉食性動物有何不同?還有其它的嚴格肉食性動物嗎?

I have started my cat Tedders on a raw meat diet and I’ve seen a lot of improvement in his health and energy levels. When I was investigating what I should be feeding him, I kept seeing cats described as obligate carnivores. What exactly is an obligate carnivore and how is it different from a regular carnivore? Are there other obligate carnivores besides cats?

 
人們會用嚴格的肉食性動物來強調貓咪和其它的肉食性狩獵者的不同。"嚴格"表示"必須性"。字典裡的定義是:1.限制在某種特定的生活方式。2.生存所必須。結合"嚴格"和"肉食性動物",意思非常明顯:貓咪必須吃肉,這是他們生存所必須的。
People refer to cats as obligate carnivores when they are trying to emphasize the fact that cats are a little different than many other meat-eating predators. Obligate means "by necessity." The dictionary definition is: 1. Restricted to one particularly characteristic mode of life. 2. Biologically essential for survival.Combining obligate with carnivore is pretty clear. Cats must eat meat, it is a biological necessity.
 
不管哪種貓咪,包含家貓都是嚴格的肉食性動物。但是貓咪並不是唯一,其它哺乳類動物像是貂、眼鏡猴、海豚、海獅、海豹、以及海象都是。非哺乳類動物的嚴格肉食性動物包括虹鱒魚、鮭魚、老鷹、鱷魚以及許多蛇類和蜥蜴還有大部分的兩棲動物。
All felids, including domestic cats, are obligate carnivores. But, the cat is not alone in being a strict meat-eater. Other mammals that are classed as obligate carnivores include mink, tarsiers, dolphins, seals, sea lions and walruses, to name a few.² Non-mammal obligate carnivores include rainbow trout, salmon, hawks, eagles, crocodilians, many snakes and lizards and most amphibians.³
 
這些動物會演化成嚴格肉食性動物是由祖先傳下來的。因為只吃肉可以提供某些維生素以及脂肪酸,貓以及許多其它嚴格肉食性動物已經喪失製造這些胺基酸以及維生素的能力,不像草食性動物或是雜食動物一樣。他們不需要製造,因為他們吃的這些動物已經做好給他們吸收了。例如,貓咪需要維生素A,但是他們不像人類、狗或兔子一樣可以由beta胡蘿蔔素轉換而來。他們也不太能將色胺酸轉換成烟酸。他們需要大量的牛磺酸,而這個在動物的肉中含量最高。還有精胺酸,也是一樣在肉中的含量最高,缺乏此胺基酸對貓咪來說是致命的。還好,所有的肉裡面含量都很多。簡單來說,貓咪必須吃肉以存活。
All of these animals became obligate carnivores as a result of their ancestral diets. Because eating a meat-only diet provides some vitamins and fatty acids in their pre-formed state, cats and many other obligate carnivores have lost the ability to make these amino acids and vitamins in their own bodies the way herbivores or omnivores do. They don’t need to since the animals they are eating have already done it for them.
Cats aren't the only obligate carnivores.

貓咪不是唯一的嚴格肉食性動物

Cats aren't the only obligate carnivores.

 For example, cats require vitamin A in its pre-formed state, they can’t make it from beta-carotene the way humans or dogs or rabbits can. They have little ability to form niacin from tryptophan. They have a high requirement for taurine, which is found almost exclusively in animal flesh. Arginine, also found in animal flesh, is so critical to the cat that a meal without it can lead to death. Fortunately, all meat sources have plenty. Simply put, cats must eat meat to live.
 
貓的消化系統已經演化適應吃生食,他們的消化道和身體的比例比大多數的動物都還短。生的獵物很容易消化而且不需要很長的消化道與草食性動物所需要的發酵菌。貓咪喪失某些代謝的能力,因為他們不需要了。當你習慣的飲食中幾乎不含任何碳水化合物的時候你就不需要具備分解碳水化合物的能力了!
The digestive systems of cats have also become specifically adapted to eating raw flesh. They have the shortest digestive tract compared to body size of almost any mammal. Raw prey is highly digestible and there is no need for a long gut and the fermenting bacteria that animals that eat plants need. Cats have lost some metabolic abilities simply because they don’t need them anymore. You don’t need to be efficient at breaking down carbohydrates when your diet contains practically none.
 
一個定義嚴格肉食性動物方式是他們需要很大量的蛋白質。貓咪經由糖質新生作用提供足夠的血糖,而此是使用分解蛋白質而非碳水化合物。他們非常依賴蛋白質,如果飲食中的蛋白質含量不足,無法提供能量所需,他們就會開始分解自己的肌肉與器官。
One of the defining characteristics of an obligate carnivore is a requirement for a high amount of protein in the diet. Cats meet their blood glucose requirements from gluconeogenesis, using protein, rather than from the breakdown of carbohydrates in their diet. They are so dependent on protein that if their diet is lacking an adequate amount to supply their energy needs, they will break down their own body muscle and organs.
 
看看其它的嚴格肉食性動物你大概就可以有所了解。暴龍是眾所皆知的獵食者,人們自然會覺得他們就是吃肉的。你永遠不會想像一隻老鷹帶著玉米回巢餵小小鷹。沒有人會想要為那些動物吃穀類和蔬菜。但是,許多人會接受餵蔬菜穀物給貓咪。重點是,人們都會自動的認為以及接受很多的動物他們就是只吃肉,但不會想到貓咪也是。還認為貓咪不屬於吃肉的那一群。
Taking a look at other animals that fall into the obligate carnivore category can be instructive. Raptors are adept predators and people naturally think of them as meat eaters. You would never imagine an eagle bringing back an ear of corn to its nest to feed its young. No one would accept the idea of trying to feed vegetables or grains to such an animal. Yet, many people would accept feeding these things to a cat. The point to be made is that many animals that people automatically think of and accept as exclusively raw meat eaters are in the same category as their companion cats. Yet, they think of cats as somehow excused from the raw meat only club.
 
Tedder,你已經開始吃你該吃的東西,而且也看到很好的結果,歡迎回到吃肉俱樂部!
You have started feeding the diet that your cat has evolved to eat and you’ve seen the great results. Welcome back to the club, Tedders.
 

Note: The Feline Nutrition Education Society provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. The Feline Nutrition Education Society disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.

 

 

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