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餵食貓咪:了解貓咪所需的基本營養

Feeding Your Cat: Know the Basics of Feline Nutrition

作者:Lisa A. Pierson, DVM

 

如何讓乾乾大王適應罐罐

Transitioning Dry Food Addicts to Canned Food

請記住,當貓咪是健康的時候是最好的轉換飲食時機.

Keep in mind that the best time to implement a diet change is when the cat is healthy.

生病的貓咪接受新的食物型態會是一大問題而且當貓咪把這種不舒服的感覺和這類食物產生關聯性的時候,甚至會產生終身厭惡感.

Trying to get an ill cat to embrace a new type of food can be problematic and a cat that is not feeling well may even develop a food aversion if they associate the new food with their discomfort.

因生病而降低食慾的貓咪通常無法攝取足夠的熱量,這不是個密集轉換飲食的好時機.

Sick cats are often not consuming enough calories as it is so if your cat has a decreased appetite due to illness, this is not the time to push a diet change with too much intensity.

有泌尿道問題的貓咪,增加水分攝取非常的重要.

For patients with urinary tract problems, it is extremely important for them to increase their water intake.

但是,因為膀胱發炎跟壓力有關係,而轉換飲食會造成壓力,我們必須非常小心且慢慢的進行.

However, because cystitis (inflammation of the bladder wall) is thought to be linked to stress – and implementing a diet change can be stressful - we need to be mindful of this and go slowly.

當你要開始讓貓咪吃罐罐時,你可以藉由有味道的水(如鮪魚汁,牛肉/雞肉湯,蛤蠣湯,無乳糖貓奶等等)增加食物裡的水分. 你可以自製鮪魚汁-加三杯水到一罐鮪魚裡,攪碎靜置15分鐘,然後將鮪魚汁倒入製冰盒中(保持新鮮). 也可以用其他他們喜歡口味的液體來製冰.

While you are working on getting your cat to eat canned food, you can increase their water intake by using flavored waters such as tuna water, beef or chicken broth, clam juice, lactose-free cat milk, etc. You can make you own tuna water by adding 3 cups of water to a can of tuna. Mash it up and let it sit for ~15 minutes then pour the water into covered (to help maintain freshness) ice cube trays. 3 cups of water will fill two 16-cube trays. The ice cube trays can be used for other flavored liquids as well.

在使用前,把冰塊加熱到體溫的溫度然後加1-2匙到每餐的罐罐裡,做為另一種飲水的來源.

Prior to using, heat the ice cubes to ‘mouse body’ temperature and then add 1-2 TBS per meal of canned food in addition to putting some in a bowl as a separate drink of water.

請了解我並不是說你不應該讓生病的貓貓轉換成吃罐罐. 因為他們可能會出乎你意外的比較喜歡罐罐. 但是依前面所說,你必須確定貓咪攝取了足夠的熱量.

Please understand that I am not saying that you should refrain from introducing canned food into a sick cat’s world - because they may even surprise you by favoring canned over dry - but go forward with the above comments in mind while making sure that your cat is consuming enough calories.

沒幾件事會比對付挑嘴貓還令人沮喪. 這個品種的貓咪對食物非常的固執. 貓咪就像小孩,常常會拒絕那些對他們最好的東西. 常常有人說當他們試圖說服貓咪吃較健康的食物時,貓咪完全不吃或是貓咪比較喜歡乾乾. 小孩很喜歡洋芋片跟冰淇淋,但這並不表示這些食物是健康的.

There are few things in life more frustrating than dealing with a finicky cat. The members of this species can be incredibly ‘set in their ways’ when it comes to their dietary preferences. Cats, like children, often resist what is best for them. The two most frequent comments that I hear from people when trying to convince them to feed their cats a healthier diet are "my cat won't eat canned food" and "but my cat really likes his dry food." Children really like potato chips and ice cream but that certainly does not mean those food items constitute optimal nutrition.


轉換的過程不只是把新的食物倒給他們, 時間,耐心及技巧也是必須的.

The transition process often involves much more than just plunking down a new food item. Time, patience, and tricks are often required.

為什麼貓咪比較喜歡乾乾,因為寵物食品公司在乾乾外面包了一層動物喜歡的味道,讓貓咪非常喜歡,所以貓咪會很喜歡這些低品質的食物.

One reason that cats like dry food so much is because the pet food companies do not play fair when manufacturing this sub-optimal food source. They coat the kibble with extremely enticing animal digest sprays which are very pleasing to a cat - making a poor quality diet very desirable to the target animal.

除了上述包層的動作外,另外就是乾乾脆脆的口感跟罐罐非常不同. 貓咪非常不喜歡這樣巨大的改變.

In addition to the aforementioned coating of dry food with animal digests, another issue is one of a crunchy texture which is very different from canned food. Cats are very resistant to such a drastic change in the texture of their food.

如果你也認為讓貓咪遠離乾乾是正確的,閱讀下面所述的小撇步以達到目標.

If you are convinced that getting your cat off of dry food is the way to go, read on for some tips on how to accomplish this.


關鍵是有耐心並慢慢進行,而且用一些技巧說服固執貓. 最重要的事情是做出改變,而不是能多快達到. 我必須說,我的貓咪用盡了我所有的耐心,我用了三個月以上的時間去轉換他們的飲食. 他們已經吃了一輩子的乾乾,並不認為罐罐是食物. 我的貓咪從兩歲到十歲都有.

The key is to do it slowly and with patience and incorporate various tricks for the stubborn cats. The most important issue is actually making the change, not how fast you accomplish it. I must say that my cats tested every ounce of patience I had over a 3 + month period of time during their transition from dry to canned food. They had been on dry food their entire lives and did not recognize canned food as food. My cats ranged in age from 2 years to 10 years at the time of the transition.

我看過唯一且最大的錯誤是人們花了時間,但還是說貓咪完全不碰新的食物.然後在害怕之餘就又倒了一整碗的乾乾給貓咪.

The single biggest mistake I see people make time and again is to say that their cat "won't touch" the new food and then panic and fill up the bowl with dry food. In many cases, it is simply not that easy to get cats off of dry food. (See Molly's story at catinfo.org – Feline Obesity page - for a look at one very stubborn cat.)

有兩種貓咪-一種會吃罐罐,另一種會非常抵抗任何不是乾乾的食物. 如果你的貓咪是第一種,你很幸運. 那些貓咪會覺得~終於!是我們貓族該吃的東西了!”. 如果你的貓咪是這一種,且曾經過著全乾乾的生活,或是只有被獎賞食才有罐罐可以吃,開始慢慢增加罐罐的量吧.

There are two categories of cats - those that will eat canned food and those that will be extremely resistant to eating anything other than dry food. If your cat falls into the first category, lucky you. These cats will take to it with the attitude of “finally – an  appropriate diet for my species.” In this case, if your cat has been on all dry food, or only receives canned food as an occasional 'treat', start by feeding canned food in increasing amounts.

慢慢的減少乾乾的量,用大概一個禮拜以完全轉換貓咪的飲食成百分百罐罐.

Gradually decrease the dry, taking about a week to fully switch the cat over to 100 percent canned food.


在轉換過程,有些貓咪可能會有軟便的現象. 我並不擔心這個情形. 如果產生腹瀉,那你要考慮試試不同的罐罐或是再減慢轉換的速度,把時間拉長至幾個禮拜.

Some cats may experience softer stools during the transition. I do not worry if this happens and tend to 'ride it out'. If diarrhea results from the diet change you will either need to experiment with different canned foods or slow the transition down and do it over a period of several weeks.

一般的貓咪一天吃4-6盎司(113~170g)的罐罐,分成2~3餐餵食,但這只是一般的指示. 要決定貓咪應該餵食多少罐罐,簡單來說: 太肥? 餵少一點. 太瘦? 餵多一點.

The average cat should eat 4-6 ounces of canned food per day split between 2-3 meals but this is just a general guideline. When determining how much you should be feeding your cat once transitioned to canned food, keep it simple. Too fat? Feed less. Too thin? Feed more.

 

現在來講固執貓

Now....for the stubborn cats......

如果你像我一樣不幸,你的貓咪不知道自己是食肉動物還有罐罐(或自製鮮食)會給他比較好的健康,那你會有一些工作要做. 有些吃了一輩子乾乾的貓咪會拒絕食物的改變,而且需要幾週甚至更長的時間來轉換成較健康的飲食.

If you are unlucky like I was, and your cat does not recognize the fact that he is a carnivore and would live a healthier life if eating canned food, (or a home-prepared diet) then you will have some work to do. Some cats that have been on dry food for their entire life will be quite resistant to the diet change and may take several weeks or longer to make the transition to a healthier diet.

對拒絕改變的貓咪,你需要用一些正常的飢餓感以幫助轉換.

For 'resistant-to-change' cats, you will need to use the normal sensation of hunger to help with the transition.


所以你必須停止餵食乾乾buffet. 這是關鍵的第一步,你必須制定吃飯時間. 如果你給他們隨時都裝滿滿的垃圾食物,他們不會去嘗試新的東西.

For this reason, it is very important to stop free-feeding dry food. This is the first, and very critical, step. You need to establish set mealtimes. They are not going to try anything new if their bowl of junk food is in front of them 24/7.


貓咪不需要隨時都有食物可以吃. 讓他們感受一點點的飢餓感是OK! 雖然這樣說,但是聽貓咪跟我哭訴討食的聲音很難受. 那段時間對我及對貓咪們都壓力很大. 事實上,我想我比他們痛苦. 這是許多人失敗然後就放棄的步驟. 有很多時候,我必須打給我的心靈導師,而他說如果你無法直視那些可憐兮兮的眼睛,就離開屋子吧!” 所以我離開屋子. 聽著那些可憐的哭喊聲說著我已經整整兩個小時沒有食物了!” 是很難受的. 但是當我回到屋子時,每隻貓咪都好好的,沒有任何一隻因為飢餓而死亡.

Cats do not need food available at all times. It really is okay for them to experience a hunger pain! That said, it was very hard for me to listen to my cats begging for food even though I was strong in my conviction that I was heading them in the best direction for optimal health. It truly was a stressful time for me and them. Actually, I think it was harder on me! This is where many people fail and just give in and fill up the dry food bowl. There were a few times when I had to call my 'sponsor' and was instructed to "just leave the house if you can't take looking into those eyes!" I left the house. Those pitiful little cries of "I have not had food for two WHOLE hours!" were hard to take. But, lo and behold, they were just fine when I returned. Not one cat had died from hunger.


另一方面, 不要以為禁食超過24小時貓咪就會選擇新的食物. 你需要說服他們高品質的罐罐對他們是好的,而不是一味的讓他們餓肚子,這是沒有用的. 讓貓咪禁食超過48小時是非常危險的而且可能會造成脂肪肝(尤其是過重的貓咪).

On the other hand, do not attempt to withhold food for long periods of time (greater than 24 hours) with the hope that your cat will choose the new food. You need to ‘convince’ them that a high quality canned food really is good for them, rather than to try starving them into it - which does not work anyway. Allowing a cat to go without food - especially an overweight cat - for a long period of time (greater than 48 hours) can be quite dangerous and may result in hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver disease).


當貓咪只攝取應攝取熱量的一半或更少時也會造成脂肪肝.

Hepatic lipidosis can also develop when a cat consumes 50% or less of his daily caloric requirements over a period of many days.


多久時間會造成脂肪肝,依每隻貓咪而不同. 所以你應該要懂得乾乾和罐罐所提供貓咪每天所需能量的多寡. 貓咪每天每磅至少要攝取15大卡才不會產生脂肪肝. 這個數值必須用瘦肉部分重量來算,而非脂肪重量.

The definition of "many" varies from cat-to-cat. For this reason it is important to understand that you need to have some idea of the calories from canned food combined with the calories from dry food that your cat is consuming on a daily basis while you are implementing the transition to canned food. I have never seen a cat develop hepatic lipidosis when consuming at least 15 calories per pound per day. This number is figured on lean body weight, not fat weight.


如果你的貓咪體重為18,那他實際上應該是重12, 請確定他每天攝取至少180大卡. (12x15大卡//=180/). 如果你的是小小的女生,可能只有9,請確定她攝取至少135大卡/.

If your cat weighs 18 pounds but really should weigh 12 pounds, please make sure that he is consuming at least ~180 calories per day. (12 pounds lean body mass X 15 calories/pound/day = ~180 calories/day) If you have a small female cat that should only weigh 9 pounds, please make sure that she is consuming at least 135 calories per day.


罐罐不會標示熱量在罐罐上,但很多的乾乾會寫在袋子上. 一般來說有78%水分的罐罐約有30大卡/盎司,依罐罐不同可能會在20~40大卡/盎司之間.

Canned foods never list the calorie content on the can but many dry foods do list this information on the bag. A rough guideline for the calorie content of most canned foods that are 78% moisture is ~30 calories/ounce but can range from 20 to 40 calories/ounce as shown by the chart located at binkyspage.tripod.com/canfood.html.


大部分的貓咪在轉換時期會稍微減輕體重. 對於大部分的過重貓來說是很好的(只要他們不要在很短的時間減去太多的重量!) 貓咪每周不能減少超過體重的1-2%,最好是接近1%.

Most cats will lose some weight during the transition to canned food. Given that a very high percentage of cats are overweight to begin with, this is a favorable result of the diet change - as long as they do not lose too much weight too fast! A cat should never lose more than 1-2% of his body weight per week - preferably closer to 1%.


我非常建議所有的貓奴們定期量貓咪的體重. 這會幫助確定轉換時期是否安全. 一般來說,體重減輕是健康出現問題的第一警訊,所以我的貓咪每年都至少會秤重兩次.

I highly suggest that all cat caregivers weigh their cats periodically. This will help ensure a safe transition to a healthier diet and, in general, weight loss is often the first sign of ill health for any reason. I make it a point to weigh my cats at least twice yearly.

The Health-O-Meter HDC100-01 baby scale weighs to the nearest 1/2 ounce and has a 'hold' button on it that helps obtain an accurate weight even for a cat that is moving around a bit.


我所有的貓咪在這三個月的轉換期間都減輕了體重,但並沒有讓他們過輕. 他們的身線變好,減少脂肪但維持了肌肉含量. 他們也變得比較有活力.

All of my cats lost weight during the three months that it took to switch them to canned but none of them became too thin. They slimmed down to a nice lean body weight – losing fat while maintaining their muscle mass. They also became much more active.

If your cat is overweight, please see the Feline Obesity page at www.catinfo.org.


當他們對罐罐嗤之以鼻時是很令人沮喪的. 同時,你可能想馬上幫貓咪換成較少碳水化合物的乾乾. 現在市面上有三種無穀/低碳水化合物的乾乾: Natura/Innova’s EVO, Wellness CORENature’s Variety Instinct.這些低碳水化合物的乾乾含有很高量的脂肪所以是高度熱量濃縮的. 當你餵這些食物時,必須控制他們的進食量,不然貓咪會變胖. 注意:Innova EVO的乾乾一杯有612大卡,四分之一杯就有153大卡,所以要很小心並注意你餵的量.

Resign yourself to the fact that you will be very frustrated at times and you will be wasting canned food as they turn up their nose at it. Also, you may want to immediately switch your cat to a dry food that has fewer calories from carbohydrates than most dry foods. There are three grain-free/low carbohydrate dry foods currently on the market: Natura/Innova's EVO, Wellness CORE, and Nature's Variety Instinct.

These low-carb dry foods are very high in fat and therefore are very calorie dense. These foods must be portion-controlled otherwise your cat may end up gaining weight. Note that dry Innova EVO has 612 calories per cup according to the information on the bag. One quarter of a cup contains 153 calories so be very careful to pay attention to how much of these high calorie dry foods you feed.


一般貓咪所需的熱量約150~250大卡/,依他們的活動情形及體重不同.

The caloric needs of an average cat can range between 150 - 250 calories/day depending on their lean body weight and activity level.


低碳水化合物的乾乾也有很高的磷. 尤其對腎貓來說非常不利.

The low-carb dry foods are also very high in phosphorus. This is especially detrimental for cats with compromised kidney function.


而且,當然,這些低碳水化合物的乾乾,就像其它的乾乾一樣水分嚴重不足,而且為了要乾燥,經過很高溫的烹煮.

And, of course, these low-carb dry foods are water-depleted just like all dry foods are and are cooked at very high temperatures in order to dry them out.


依以上的原因,我不建議貓奴們長期餵食這些乾乾. 請只用來當作轉換飲食中的過渡用.

I do not recommend these dry foods for long-term feeding for all of the reasons stated above. Please use them only as transition diets.


請一定要避開用那些減肥貓用的食物,因為這些形式的食物有很高的碳水化合物.

Be sure to stay away from any "light" varieties since those types of foods are very high in carbohydrates.



這裡有一些技巧來制服固執貓.

Here are some various tricks for the stubborn ones.

請注意,不同的貓咪適用不同的方法.

Keep in mind that different tricks work on different cats:

 

●如果你的貓咪是吃buffet長大的, 拿走那些食物,並製訂每日餵食時間表(2~3/). 我比較建議在你要轉換飲食時,每天只餵兩餐. 12個小時的飢餓(健康及正常的情況),會讓他們相信該試試新的東西了.

If your cat has been eating dry food on a free-choice basis, take up the food and establish a schedule of two - three times per day feedings. I really do prefer just twice-daily feedings when trying to transition them. A normal, healthy hunger response after 12 hours goes a long way to convince them to try something new.


當貓咪已經轉換成罐罐飲食, 我建議可以讓他們吃buffet(如果他們沒有過重的話)或是每天提供三餐. 我並不擔心把罐罐放在外面12小時. 記得,獅子不會馬上將獵物吃乾抹淨.

Once the cat has transitioned to canned food, I prefer to either free-feed them (if they are not too fat) or to put out a meal three times per day. Small cats in the wild eat 8-10 small meals per day. I do not worry about leaving canned food out for up to 12 hours at a time. Keep in mind that a lion is not going to eat his entire prey immediately.


如果你想慢慢的進行轉換,你可以將餵他每天通常進食的量.分成兩餐,並每24小時餵一餐. 這會讓他習慣定時吃飯. 許多人不確定那些吃buffet的貓咪每天究竟進食量為多少,所以我會由搞清楚你的貓每天需要多少熱量以維持體重開始.

If you want to take the transition very slowly, you can feed the amount that your cat normally consumes in a 24 hour period - split up into two feedings to get him used to meal feeding. Many people, however, are unsure as to how much their free-fed cat really eats so I would start off by figuring out the calories that your cat needs to maintain his weight if he does not need to lose any weight.


大部分的貓咪只需要150~250大卡/. 乾乾的袋子上會告訴你每杯含有多少的熱量,如果沒有的你可以找找binkyspage.tripod.com/dryfood.html上面有沒有你正在用的乾乾.

Again, most cats only need 150-250 calories/day. The dry food bag should tell you how many calories are in a cup of food but if it does not, you can check to see if it is listed on the dry food chart at binkyspage.tripod.com/dryfood.html


將食物擺出來20分鐘,然後將所有沒有吃完的部分收起來. 8~12小時後重複一次(依你每天餵幾餐而定). 在轉換的前幾天,你可以在餵乾乾的每餐之間提供罐罐. 固執貓不會去碰它. 不要失望,在貓奴堅定的意志及耐心下,所有的貓咪都會開始吃罐罐的. 當你的貓咪習慣定時制後,你會發現他在用餐時間到時會非常的興奮,而會比較想試試新的東西.

Leave the food down for 20 minutes, and then remove any uneaten portion. Repeat in 8-12 hours depending on if you are feeding 2 or 3 times per day. During the first few days of transitioning to a set schedule, you can offer canned food during the dry food meals, or in-between meals. The stubborn ones, however, will not touch it. Do not despair - all cats will eventually eat canned food if their caregiver is determined, methodical, and patient enough. Once your cat is on a schedule you will notice that he is more enthusiastic about food during his proper mealtimes and will be much more inclined to try something new.


●當你完成定時制後,你要開始減少每餐餵食的量,而使他們有一些些的飢餓感. 重申,我們是要利用這些正常的飢餓感以幫助轉換的進行,而並不是要讓他們餓到被迫改變吃的東西.

Once you have established scheduled mealtimes, you will most likely need to start feeding a bit less at each mealtime in order to get the normal sensation of hunger to work in your favor. Again, we are trying to use the normal sensation of hunger to help us out. We are not trying to starve the cat into the diet change.


●當你的貓咪適應定時制後,試試每天只餵一餐罐罐. 如果他不吃(非常固執的貓咪就不會吃),不要沮喪,而且不要放乾乾給他. 試下面講到的其他技巧. 如果他仍是不吃罐罐,讓他更餓一點點. 幾個小時候再次提供罐罐. 是是不同的品牌/口味或是不同的技巧.

Once your cat is on a schedule of meal-feeding instead of free-feeding, try feeding a meal of canned food only. If he will not eat it - and the very stubborn ones won't - try not to get frustrated - and do not put down dry food. Try some of the other tips listed below. If he still will not eat the canned food, let him get a bit hungrier. Offer the canned again in a couple of hours. Try a different brand/flavor or a different 'trick'.

當他約18小時沒有進食,給他少量(約四分之一杯)的乾乾,並要注意他每天的熱量攝取.

Once it has been ~18 hours since he has eaten anything, give him just a small amount (~1/4 of a cup - or less if it is EVO) of his dry food – keeping track of his daily calorie intake.


記得一定要有耐心.Remember to be patient.


●在吃飯前用逗貓棒讓他運動一下也會刺激他的食欲.

Exercising your cat with a tassel toy before feeding can also help stimulate his appetite.


●讓吃乾乾變成一種遊戲,而不只是把乾乾放在碗裡. 一次丟1~2個乾乾到房間的另一角,所以他必須跑來跑去以得食物. 這個技巧對Bennie的減肥計畫很有效,Bennie在罐罐餵食量控制下從30磅減到18. 我一天用25EVO乾乾(大約25大卡)讓他獵食. EVO是熱量高度濃縮的食物,所以一般的乾乾通常不會有這麼多的熱量.

Instead of putting the dry food portion in his bowl, turn it into a game. Throw the dry   food, one or two pieces at a time across the room so that he has to run back and forth and ‘hunt’ for it. This trick worked great for my obesity project, Bennie. Bennie went from 30 lbs to 18 lbs once on portion-controlled canned food. I used 25 pieces/day of EVO for him to run after which was about 25 calories. EVO is very calorie-dense so 25 pieces of most dry foods will not contain this many calories.

你丟我吃的遊戲會幫助貓咪燃燒熱量而且會刺激他的食欲,所以他可能會比較想要試試罐罐. 這也是一個跟貓咪互動的好方法,因為這可以幫助他釋放壓力及無聊感.

Playing the ‘toss the dry food portion’ game will help your cat burn off calories and should stimulate his appetite so that he may be more inclined to try canned food. It is also a great way to interact with your cat which helps to relieve the stress/boredom that many indoor cats experience.


●貓咪的鼻子比我們的鼻子還要靈敏很多. 他們可以聞到櫃子裡的乾乾,我建議將乾乾放在冰箱或是密封罐裡. 如果他們聞的到,他們就會忍耐等乾乾的到來.有些人建議乾脆就讓乾乾從家裡消失,但當你是面對一個非常固執的貓咪時,這是不可能的,你需要更多的時間及耐心來完成轉換.

Cats' noses are much more sensitive than ours are. They can smell the dry food in the cupboards. I suggest either putting it in the refrigerator or putting it in a tightly sealed container. If they can smell it, they will hold out for it. Some people recommend getting it out of your house completely, but this is not possible when you are dealing with a very stubborn cat that needs a bit of time and patience to make the transition happen.


●下面的方法對我的貓咪有效: 在罐罐上灑一點點的鮪魚(或是其它他們喜歡的味道,有些貓咪不喜歡魚,比較喜歡煮熟的雞肉),當他們開始會吃這個的時候,開始將這些調味壓進罐罐表面. 越快拿掉這些魚越好,如果長期以魚肉為主時會產生一些健康上的問題.加上,你不想要讓你的貓咪變成只吃充滿魚味的食物吧.

The following worked for my cats: Sprinkle a very small amount of tuna – or any other favorite treat (some cats do not like fish and would prefer cooked chicken) - on the top of the canned food and then once they are eating this, start pressing it into the top of the new food. (The “light” tuna is better than the fancy white tuna because it has a stronger smell. Or, Trader Joe’s makes a Cat Tuna that is very stinky.) Be careful to

decrease the amount of fish as soon as possible. Health problems can occur with a predominantly fish-based diet. Plus, you do not want to create a situation where your cat will only eat very fishy foods.


●確定所有冰過的罐罐要先加熱. 貓咪喜歡老鼠體溫的食物.

Make sure that any refrigerated canned food is warmed up a bit. Cats prefer their food at 'mouse body temperature'.


●試試提供一些煮過(或生食-全肉,清理乾淨或部分煮過)的雞肉或嬰兒食品. 目標之一是讓貓咪習慣吃不是脆脆的食物. 他需要習慣這個不同的口感, 而且,雞肉是一個很好的蛋白質來源. 如果他吃那個雞肉,他可能會馬上開始接受罐罐(也有可能不會).

Try offering some cooked (or raw – whole meats, rinsed well or parboiled) chicken or meat baby food. One of the goals is to get your cat used to eating food that does not crunch. He needs to get used to a different texture. Also, chicken is a great source of protein to point him in the proper direction toward a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. If he eats the chicken, he may head right into eating canned food. Then again....he may not.


●試試灑一點乾乳酪在罐罐上. 大部分的貓咪喜歡乾乳酪,而且這個小技巧對我來說一直非常有用.

Try sprinkling some parmesan cheese on the canned food. Most cats love parmesan cheese and this trick has been very successful for me.


●試試一個產品叫做: FortiFlora. 這個產品可在獸醫院或是網路上買到. 大部分的貓咪很愛這個產品而且這個產品成為我最近愛用的小技巧. 這是Purina公司出的益生菌,但你並不是主要需要這個益生菌的功能. 你只是要把它用來增加風味. 這個產品中主要成分是動物分解物,這個就是讓乾乾非常吸引貓咪的成分. 上面的只是說一天用一包,而且你想用多少都可以,但是這個量並不是必需的. 你每天大概只需要用四分之一包,或更少的量,一部分混到食物裡,令一部分灑在食物上,就像你在自己的食物上灑鹽和胡椒一樣.

Try a product called FortiFlora. This product can be obtained from your veterinarian or online. Most cats love FortiFlora and this has recently become my favorite trick. This is a probiotic made by Purina but you are not going to use it for its probiotic properties. You are just going to use it as a flavor enhancer. The base ingredient in FortiFlora is animal digest - the very substance that makes dry food so very enticing to cats. The directions say to use 1 package/day - and you can use this much if you want to – but this amount is not usually necessary. You may only need ~1/4 of a package - or less - with part mixed into the food and part sprinkled on top of the food just as you would use salt and pepper on your own food.


●市面上有很多的冷凍乾燥零食也可以用來灑在罐罐上.

There are numerous freeze dried meat treats on the market that you can also sprinkle on top of the canned food. Halo's Liv A Littles is a popular choice.


●說到口感,一個常見的問題是我可以就把乾乾泡濕餵嗎?” 我不只一次被問到這個問題了. 乾乾通常有更高的細菌含量. 乾乾上很常會發現黴菌. 有很多的狗狗跟貓咪就是因為吃了黴菌所產生的毒素而死亡. 如果你想要藉由泡濕乾乾而改變他的口感,最多只能放20~30分鐘,然後就得丟掉,細菌跟黴菌在水分下會大量生長.

Speaking of texture, a common question is "can I just soak the dry food in water?" I hedge more than just a bit at this question. Dry food often has a high bacterial content. Mold is also often found in dry food. There have been many deaths of dogs and cats secondary to eating mold mycotoxins, vomitoxins and aflatoxins which often contaminate the grains found in dry food. If you want to try the trick of wetting down the dry food to alter the texture, please leave it out for only 20-30 minutes then discard it. Bacteria and mold thrive in moisture.


●試試將乾乾沾一點罐罐. 有些貓咪可能會拒絕. 但如果他願意吃有一點點罐罐湯汁在上面的乾乾,試試薯條沾醬的小技巧. 挖一點點的罐罐在乾乾上,把這些放在另一個盤子上(一個盤子裝很少量的乾乾). 有些貓咪會先吃那個很少量的乾乾,然後去看看有一些罐罐在上面的乾乾.

Try dipping some dry food pieces in the juice from the canned food. Some cats may refuse to eat it if the dry food even touches the canned food. But if he will eat it with a bit of canned juice on it, try the 'chip and dip' trick. Scoop up a tiny bit of canned food onto the piece of dry food. Put them on a separate plate from his small portion of dry food. Some cats will eat their small portion of dry and then go investigate the dry food

with a tiny bit of canned on it.


●下一步,試試加入一點罐罐到那盤少量的乾乾.

Going one step further, try adding a few small pieces of the canned food to the small portion of dry food.

你的貓咪可能會挑開罐罐,但是就算沒有吃任何的食物也會慢慢習慣那個味道及口感.

Your cat may pick around the canned food but will get used to the smell - and texture - even if he does not eat any pieces of the new food.


●剝碎一些乾乾,並把它灑在罐罐上

Crush some dry food and sprinkle it on the top of the canned food.


如果你覺得這不會讓你的貓咪不高興,試著將一點罐罐或其湯汁塗在貓咪的牙齦上,這可能會讓他對這個味道及口感感興趣. 請溫柔的做這個動作,因為你不想讓這個動作成為壓力源而讓貓咪討厭這個食物.(這個方法常用來讓剛斷奶的小貓習慣吃罐罐)

If you do not think it will upset your cat, try gently rubbing a bit of canned food or juice on the cat's gums This may get him interested in the taste and texture of the new food - but do it gently. You do not want to make this a stressful situation and create a food aversion. (This trick is commonly used to get just-weaned kittens used to eating canned food.)


如果你覺得這不會讓你的貓咪不高興,用你的手指放一點點罐罐或其湯汁在他的掌上讓他舔掉, 這個方法對我的兩隻貓來說不管用,但這是一個方法. 必須注意這不會讓貓咪產生壓力,重申,你不想要讓食物厭惡感產生.

If you do not think it will upset your cat, use your finger to put a tiny bit of canned food or juice on his paw for him to lick off. This has not worked for me in the two cats I have tried it on but it is another idea. Make sure you do it without stressing your cat. Again, you do not want to create a food aversion.


●如果你是多貓家庭,有些貓咪喜歡單獨吃飯,比較沒有壓力. 所以你可能需要將這些貓咪帶到一個獨立且安靜的房間去想想這些年來吃錯的食物(碳水化合物及乾乾成癮症). 跟其他的貓咪分開後,我的其中兩隻貓咪開始會吃我手上的罐罐及鮪魚肉球. 只吃我手上的,而非碗裡的.我不確定是我還是他們是被訓練的那一方. 但最後他們在幾次的手餵後開始從碗裡吃了.

If you have a multiple cat household, some cats like to eat alone in a less stressful environment, so you may need to take these cats into a separate, quiet room to think about the error of their ways - their carbohydrate/ dry food addiction. Once in a quiet setting, away from the other cats, two of my cats would eat canned food/ tuna ‘meatballs’ by hand. Not from a bowl, mind you, but only from my hand. I’m not sure who was being trained. They did eventually start eating from a bowl after a few hand feedings.


●試試不同品牌及口味的罐罐. 很多貓咪喜歡充滿副產品的罐罐,對比較好的罐罐(Wellness)嗤之以鼻.你可以先將餵食高品質罐罐放在下一步驟,且混和不同種的食物來餵食. 一開始的目標是讓貓咪習慣吃罐罐. 記得我先前所說的,我寧願看貓咪吃劣質罐罐,也不要吃乾乾.

Try various brands and flavors of canned foods. Try Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc. Many cats love the foods that are all by-products and turn up their noses at the ‘higher end’ foods like Wellness, etc. You can worry about feeding a higher quality canned food later and you can always mix different types of food together. The initial goal is just to get your cat used to eating canned food and not dry kibble. And remember what I said above. I would much rather see cats eating Friskies or 9-Lives canned food than any dry food.


●灌食也是一個方法,但必須有技巧及耐心的做,才不會產生食物厭惡感. 如果你選擇灌食,你的目標不是要餵一整餐. 有時候只是餵1~2 cc的罐罐就可以讓貓咪開始喜歡吃罐罐,第一次可能不會成功,但至少讓他嘗過新食物的味道及一個陌生的口感. 最好的灌食法是跪在地上,把貓咪放在你的雙腳間,他面向的方向跟你一樣. 然後用一個小針筒(1 cc), 將它滑進貓咪的嘴巴一側,一次給予約0.5 cc. 他可能會把它吐出來,但你只是要讓他習慣這個味道及口感,並不是要強迫他吃. 只有某些罐罐可以通過針筒的尖端,但人用的嬰兒食物可以. 需要的話也可以用水稀釋.

Syringe-feeding is also another option but has to be done with finesse and patience so as to avoid a food aversion. If you choose to syringe-feed, your goal is not to feed him a full meal. Sometimes just syringing a 1-2 cc's can 'jump-start' your cat’s into eating the canned food - maybe not the first time but it will at least get him to taste the new food and experience a foreign texture. The best way to syringe-feed is to kneel on the floor with your cat between your legs so he is facing the same way as you are. Then, using a small (1cc/TB) syringe, slip it in the side of his mouth and give about 1/2 cc at a time. He may spit it out but you are just trying to get him used to the taste and texture, not stress him. Few canned foods will make it through the tip of a syringe but human meat baby food works well for this trick. You can also water it down a bit if you need to.


如果你想要用罐罐,而非嬰兒食品, 你需要將針筒的尖端剪掉一些,開口就會比較大.(確定那個尖端是平滑的.) 如果你不想要剪針筒的尖端, 你需要肉泥狀的食物. 我試過Wellness,將它加入一些水後用果汁機打碎(3~4匙的水+5.5oz的罐罐). 然後過濾掉一些可能會塞住針筒的大塊部分. Wellness不像嬰兒食品,它是一個均衡的食物.

If you want to use canned cat food instead of baby food, you will need to cut the end off of the syringe so that the opening is as big as the barrel. Make sure that the tip is smooth. If you do not want to cut the tip of the syringe off, you will need to puree a pate (versus chunks) type of food. I puree Wellness for this. I run it through the blender with a small amount of water (~3-4 tablespoons/5.5 ounce can). Then I strain it to remove anything big enough to clog the small tip of the syringe. Wellness is also a balanced diet – unlike human baby food.

就算人類的嬰兒食品不是可以當作長期食用的均衡飲食,它還是一個幫助貓咪在轉換時期適應口感的好工具.

Even though human baby food is not a balanced diet for long-term use, it is a great tool that can be used to help transition a cat to a texture that he is not used to.


Molly是一個嚴重肥胖的貓咪(20,是正常體重的兩倍),而且就算經過了兩周的灌食還是完全不吃罐罐. 她去看牙醫時被麻醉,我放了一個餵食管道她的胃裡,這減輕了我們雙方的壓力,在兩周經由餵食管餵罐罐後,她開始會從我的手指上舔食罐罐,然後就突然決定她要開始吃罐罐了.

I did have to take drastic measures for a foster cat named Molly. She was dangerously obese (20 lbs - double what she should have weighed) and would not eat canned food even after two weeks of syringe feeding her. She needed to go in for a dental so while she was under general anesthesia, I put in a feeding tube that went directly to her stomach. This took the stress off of both of us. After two weeks of feeding her via the tube she started licking the canned food from my fingers then suddenly decided it was time to eat it.

那是好幾年前的事了,她現在是個愛玩,活潑的貓咪. 在減了7磅前,她甚至無法走路,不能清理自己而且很有可能變成糖尿病.

That was a few years ago and she is now a playful, animated cat. Before the weight loss of 7 lbs, she could barely walk, could not clean herself, and was quite possibly headed for diabetes.


不要放棄. 有一隻貓咪吃了12年的乾乾. 她從來不會去碰其他貓咪吃的罐罐. 然後有一天,她發現她內心的食肉動物覺醒了,就開始吃罐罐! 我非常的驚訝. 那是4年前了,而她現在仍是吃全罐罐飲食.

Don't give up. One of my barn cats ate dry food for the first 12 years of her life. She would never touch the canned food that the other cats ate. Then, one day, she found her 'inner carnivore' and started eating canned food out of the blue! I was shocked. That was 4 years ago and she has been on a 100% canned food diet since she made the switch.

這只是一些你可以試試看的小技巧,不同的貓咪適用不同的技巧. 關鍵是耐心.

These are just a few tricks that you can try. Different tricks work on different cats. The key is to be patient.


記得,我用了三個月才讓我的貓咪有全罐罐飲食. 大部分的貓咪不需要這麼久.

Remember, it took me three months to get my cats on 100% canned food. Most cats, however, will not take this long.

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